Table 2

Classification of the interventions using the intervention ladder, categorised from least to most coercive measures, with themes predominant in women (red) and men (blue)

7Eliminate choice
  • Prohibit cigarettes

6Restrict choice
  • Reduce cigarette availability

  • Establish more smoke-free areas

5Guide choice through disincentives
  • Increase costs of cigarettes

4Guide choice through incentives
  • Introduce rewards for quitting smoking

3Guide choice through changing the default policy
  • Enable rehab clinic for smokers

2Enable choice
  • Participate in a group intervention, offering support and positivity

  • Provide feedback on physical improvement, for example, sports programme

  • Relieve withdrawal, for example, quit aids/medication

1Provide information
  • Increase knowledge about smoking and addiction

0Do nothing or monitor the current situation
  • Quit without help