Table 1

Characteristics of the included studies (PICO format)

StudyNPopulationInterventionControlOutcomeSetting
MC320Patients seeking chiropractic care with recurrent and persistent LBPRegular treatments regardless of symptomsTreatment only when experiencing painDays with bothersome LBPPrivate care, all over Sweden
PROSA197Employees on sick leave for common mental illnessSystematic approach by the rehabilitation coordinatorCare as usualDays on sick leavePrimary care, region of Västra Götaland
iSKOL734School personnelMultifaceted implementation strategy for adhering to guidelines for the prevention of CMD at the workplaceWaiting listAdherence to the guideline, risk factors for stress and stress levelsSchools in Sörmland and Stockholm
SPARC125Patients seeking care with persistent neck painStretching exercises and spinal manipulative therapyStretching exercisesPain, heart rate variabilityCounty council primary care clinics in Stockholm
  • The studies are all registrered in Clinical Trials: MC: NCT01539863, PROSA: NCT03346395, iSKOL: NCT03322839 and SPARC: NCT03576846,

  • CMD, Common Mental Disorders; LBP, Low Back Pain; MC, Maintenance Care; PICO, Population, Intervention, Control, Outcome.