Table 1

Methods of data collection and analysis

Type of dataMethod of collectionIncluded sampleMethod of analysis
InterviewsIn-depth, semistructured telephone interviews were carried out with frontline staff.46 interviews conducted between 19 March 2020 and 7 July 2020.Emerging findings summarised as RAP sheets. Verbatim transcripts were coded and data analysed using framework analysis. The coding framework was cross-checked by two researchers and we underwent a process of member checking.
PoliciesPPE policies were selected from legislation.gov.uk, https://www.england.nhs.uk (NHS England) and https://www.gov.uk/ (Public Health England, Department of Health and Social Care) using search terms such as ‘COVID-19’ OR ‘coronavirus’ OR ‘corona.’25 policies published between 1 December 2019 and 5 June 2020.Data were extracted into Excel by hand, cross-checked by another researcher and analysed using the same analytical framework.
MediaMass media data were collected through the LexisNexis database (using search terms such as ‘COVID-19’ OR ‘coronavirus’ OR ‘corona’) and hand searching.39 newspaper articles published between 15 March 2020 and 5 June 2020.Data were extracted into Excel using the software Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap), cross-checked by a reviewer and analysed using the same analytical framework.
Social media data were collected through the software Meltwater25 and Talkwalker.28145 000 English language social media posts made between 1 December 2019 and 31 May 2020.Data were selected, coded and analysed, then integrated into the same analytical framework.
  • NHS, National Health Service; PPE, personal protective equipment; RAP, Rapid Assessment Process.