Table 1

Study population baseline characteristics stratified by ethnic group, n (%) unless otherwise stated


 n
Stratified by ethnic group P value
Asian or Asian BritishBlack or Black BritishMixed and other ethnic groupsWhiteUnknown and undisclosed
538340156703259
Age (years), mean (SD)57.8 (18.5)64.2 (16.9)59.5 (17.2)69.4 (17.7)59.8 (16.5)<0.001
Age (years), median (IQR)59.0 (44.0–71.0)64.0 (53.0–79.0)59.0 (47.8–72.3)73.0 (58.0–84.0)61.0 (50.0–71.5)<0.001
Male332 (61.7)193 (56.8)103 (66.0)404 (57.5)178 (68.7)0.01
IMD quintile (n=1980)<0.001
 1 (most deprived)139 (26.0)124 (36.7)50 (32.9)183 (26.2)66 (25.7)
 2291 (54.5)165 (48.8)72 (47.4)269 (38.5)124 (48.2)
 349 (9.2)34 (10.1)20 (13.2)99 (14.2)44 (17.1)
 435 (6.6)9 (2.7)7 (4.6)86 (12.3)18 (7.0)
 5 (least deprived)20 (3.7)6 (1.8)3 (2.0)62 (8.9)5 (1.9)
Smoking (n=1700)30 (6.6)21 (7.1)10 (8.3)91 (14.8)21 (9.8)<0.001
BMI (n=1248)
Median (IQR)26.9 (24.1–31.1)28.2 (24.6–31.8)25.9 (23.1–29.0)26.3 (22.5–31.6)26.3 (22.5–30.8)0.04
By category0.04
 <18.5 kg/m29 (2.8)8 (3.6)1 (1.3)34 (6.9)11 (8.5)
 18.5 to <25 kg/m2101 (31.2)57 (25.3)31 (40.3)160 (32.5)43 (33.1)
 25–<30 kg/m2114 (35.2)83 (36.9)27 (35.1)145 (29.5)40 (30.8)
 30 to <40 kg/m287 (26.9)65 (28.9)17 (22.1)126 (25.6)28 (21.5)
 ≥40 kg/m213 (4.0)12 (5.3)1 (1.3)27 (5.5)8 (6.2)
Comorbidity (n=1700)
Obesity108 (23.6)82 (27.9)18 (14.9)161 (26.2)40 (18.7)0.01
Ischaemic heart disease102 (22.3)62 (21.1)12 (9.9)149 (24.3)21 (9.8)<0.001
Myocardial infarction55 (12.0)23 (7.8)6 (5.0)83 (13.5)14 (6.5)0.002
Congestive heart failure67 (14.7)54 (18.4)8 (6.6)114 (18.6)17 (7.9)<0.001
Peripheral vascular disease33 (7.2)35 (11.9)7 (5.8)67 (10.9)16 (7.5)0.06
Cerebral vascular accident or TIA54 (11.8)54 (18.4)11 (9.1)157 (25.6)16 (7.5)<0.001
Dementia25 (5.5)27 (9.2)5 (4.1)103 (16.8)7 (3.3)<0.001
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease119 (26.0)45 (15.3)18 (14.9)181 (29.5)34 (15.9)<0.001
Diabetes220 (48.1)157 (53.4)49 (40.5)179 (29.2)59 (27.6)<0.001
HTN261 (57.1)212 (72.1)64 (52.9)376 (61.2)96 (44.9)<0.001
Moderate to severe CKD92 (20.1)93 (31.6)16 (13.2)145 (23.6)17 (7.9)<0.001
End-stage renal disease39 (8.5)36 (12.2)7 (5.8)27 (4.4)4 (1.9)<0.001
Liver disease49 (9.1)24 (7.1)12 (7.7)58 (8.3)12 (4.6)0.25
Cancer30 (6.6)26 (8.8)8 (6.6)68 (11.1)12 (5.6)0.04
Cancer with metastases8 (1.8)5 (1.7)1 (0.8)22 (3.6)6 (2.8)0.18
AIDS0 (0.0)5 (1.7)0 (0.0)1 (0.2)0 (0.0)0.001
Charlson Comorbidity Index (n=1700)<0.001
 0131 (28.7)66 (22.4)42 (34.7)143 (23.3)91 (42.5)
 1–2178 (38.9)100 (34.0)50 (41.3)203 (33.1)88 (41.1)
 3–470 (15.3)52 (17.7)16 (13.2)146 (23.8)20 (9.3)
 ≥578 (17.1)76 (25.9)13 (10.7)122 (19.9)15 (7.0)
Rockwood Frailty Score (n=831)<0.001
 1–2 (very fit, well)31 (15.9)6 (4.3)7 (14.9)36 (9.7)15 (18.8)
 3–4 (managing well, vulnerable)87 (44.6)51 (36.7)17 (36.2)118 (31.9)32 (40.0)
 5–6 (mildly to severely frail)65 (33.3)73 (52.5)18 (38.3)174 (47.0)29 (36.2)
 8–9 (very severely frail, terminally ill)12 (6.2)9 (6.5)5 (10.6)42 (11.4)4 (5.0)
Hospital Frailty Risk Score (n=1700)<0.001
 <5 (low risk)240 (52.5)123 (41.8)66 (54.5)197 (32.1)117 (54.7)
 5–15 (intermediate risk)132 (28.9)87 (29.6)38 (31.4)150 (24.4)73 (34.1)
 ≥15 (high risk)85 (18.6)84 (28.6)17 (14.0)267 (43.5)24 (11.2)
Baseline eGFR mL/min/1.72 m2 (n=1525)
 Median (IQR)72.8 (53.3–92.7)56.4 (36.2–80.2)75.6 (54.2–91.4)64.1 (46.2–82.0)78.2 (61.5–88.7)<0.001
 eGFR <60130 (29.6)135 (48.6)26 (26.0)239 (40.5)29 (24.6)<0.001
 Acute kidney injury first 7 days (n=1673)98 (22.2)101 (34.7)32 (24.6)151 (24.4)48 (25.0)0.003
Blood results during admission
Highest creatinine μmol/L (n=1691)<0.001
Median (IQR)91.0 (72.0–157.0)119.0 (80.0–260.0)88.0 (71.8–120.3)98.0 (76.0–147.0)94.0 (75.0–132.0)
Highest CRP (n=1761)<0.001
 Median (IQR)146.0 (72.0–287.8)181.5 (99.3–289.8)132.0 (66.0–226.0)136.0 (68.0–237.0)156.0 (75.5–272.5)
Highest D-dimer mg/L (n=968)<0.001
 Median (IQR)1.0 (0.5–3.5)2.5 (0.9–10.3)1.1 (0.5–2.7)1.4 (0.6–3.4)1.5 (0.7–6.3)
Highest sHLH score (n=1881) Mean (SD)31.1 (27.1)30.0 (27.9)27.6 (28.3)26.4 (24.8)32.1 (26.7)0.01
Blood group (n=875)<0.001
 A67 (28.4)37 (23.3)15 (35.7) 150 (42.1)36 (43.9)
 AB14 (5.9)11 (6.9)0 (0.0)12 (3.4)6 (7.3)
 B78 (33.1)37 (23.3)13 (31.0)32 (9.0)8 (9.8)
 O77 (32.6)74 (46.5)14 (33.3) 162 (45.5)32 (39.0)
NEWS (first available) (n=1443) Mean (SD)4.2 (2.6)3.7 (2.2)4.0 (2.3)3.6 (2.5)3.8 (2.6)0.001
Intensive care unit (ICU)
ICU admission108 (20.1)63 (18.5)28 (17.9)77 (11.0)85 (32.8)<0.001
Days in hospital before ICU Mean (SD)2.3 (5.2)2.9 (5.1)1.1 (1.8)2.3 (11.4)1.8 (4.2)0.75
ICU length of stay median (IQR)8.0 (3.0–15.2)8.1 (3.5–14.1)8.5 (5.0–13.1)8.0 (3.9–12.0)10.0 (6.0–16.0)0.30
Mechanical ventilation within ICU admission78 (72.2)50 (79.4)23 (82.1)59 (76.6)71 (83.5)0.40
RRT within ICU admission28 (25.9)26 (41.3)7 (25.0)20 (26.0)18 (21.2)0.09
Days on organ support
Advanced respiratory mean (SD)11.0 (10.8)9.4 (8.8)8.2 (7.1)7.8 (7.8)10.3 (8.0)0.14
Total respiratory mean (SD)13.1 (10.4)11.9 (8.9)9.8 (7.0)9.6 (7.7)11.9 (7.6)0.08
Cardiovascular system mean (SD)13.4 (10.9)11.5 (8.6)9.9 (7.2)9.8 (8.3)11.8 (7.5)0.07
Renal mean (SD)2.4 (5.5)4.4 (6.6)2.1 (4.7)2.7 (5.7)1.5 (3.8)0.03
Total no of organ systems0.15
 01 (0.9)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)1 (1.3)1 (1.2)
 13 (2.8)4 (6.3)1 (3.6)5 (6.5)0 (0.0)
 276 (70.4)33 (52.4)20 (71.4)52 (67.5)66 (77.6)
 328 (25.9)26 (41.3)7 (25.0)19 (24.7)18 (21.2)
Outcomes
Died146 (27.1)101 (29.7)34 (21.8)230 (32.7)62 (23.9)0.01
Days to death mean (SD)9.7 (10.0)9.1 (11.0)11.0 (9.8)12.9 (13.6)12.7 (10.0)0.02
Days to death median (IQR)6.0 (3.0–12.0)5.0 (3.0–11.0)10.5 (4.3–14.0)9.0 (4.0–16.0)10 (6.0–17.0)<0.001
Died within 30 days138 (25.7)97 (28.5)33 (21.2)210 (29.9)58 (22.4)0.05
Died within 90 days146 (27.1)101 (29.7)34 (21.8)229 (32.6)62 (23.9)0.01
Still in hospital7 (1.3)6 (1.8)3 (1.9)6 (0.9)5 (1.9)0.60
Hospital length of stay Median (IQR)5.0 (3.0–10.0)7.0 (4.0–12.0)5.0 (3.0–11.0)8.0 (4.0–15.0)8.0 (4.0–15.0)<0.001
Discharged Hospital alive402 (74.7)241 (70.9)122 (78.2)487 (69.3)200 (77.2)0.03
Discharge destination (n=1429)<0.001
Care home or equivalent7 (1.8)5 (2.1)0 (0.0)40 (8.3)8 (4.0)
Health-related institution7 (1.8)10 (4.3)8 (6.7)23 (4.8)37 (18.7)
Usual place of residence373 (94.4)216 (91.9)110 (91.7)403 (83.8)152 (76.8)
Hospice or equivalent1 (0.3)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)2 (0.4)1 (0.5)
Temporary place of residence7 (1.8)4 (1.7)2 (1.7)13 (2.7)0 (0.0)
  • Total n=1996 unless otherwise stated.

  • P values based on Χ2 (for categorical) or Kruskal-Wallis test (for continuous).

  • BMI, body mass index; CKD, chronic kidney disease; CRP, C reactive protein; HTN, hypertension; ICU, intensive care unit; IMD, Index of Multiple Deprivation; NEWS, National Early Warning Score; RRT, renal replacement therapy; sHLH, secondary haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (without known underlying immunosuppression and bone marrow aspirate data); TIA, transient ischaemic accident.