Table 2

Prevalence of any depression* among adolescent boys and girls by sociodemographic, lifestyle and anthropometric variables

Whole sample (n=9569) % (95% CI)Adolescent boy (n=4761) % (95% CI)Adolescent girl (n=4808) % (95% CI)P value
Overall24.52 (18.11 to 32.30)22.02 (16.00 to 29.50)27.01 (20.07 to 35.29)<0.001
Sociodemographic variables
Age
 10–1422.89 (16.31 to 31.14)20.82 (14.51 to 28.94)25.02 (18.00 to 33.64)0.001
 15–1725.24 (18.95 to 32.77)23.05 (16.95 to 30.55)27.39 (20.33 to 35.81)0.068
 18–1930.44 (23.71 to 38.13)25.41 (19.12 to 32.93)34.82 (26.35 to 44.37)0.015
Place of residence
 Rural24.71 (18.04 to 32.86)22.28 (16.02 to 30.10)27.14 (19.90 to 35.83)<0.001
 Non-slum urban20.51 (11.83 to 33.15)15.19 (9.11 to 24.23)25.30 (14.48 to 40.39)<0.001
 Slum14.78 (4.29 to 40.16)15.45 (3.83 to 45.61)14.15 (4.72 to 35.44)0.66
Educational status
 No education20.87 (12.73 to 32.28)18.80 (10.81 to 30.65)30.90 (13.63 to 55.89)0.239
 Partial primary23.10 (16.16 to 31.89)21.09 (14.32 to 29.93)25.81 (18.07 to 35.42)0.052
 Complete primary22.74 (16.63 to 30.28)20.52 (14.23 to 28.66)24.92 (18.17 to 33.17)0.123
 Partial secondary24.50 (18.09 to 32.28)22.61 (16.37 to 30.37)26.02 (19.09 to 34.39)0.089
 Complete secondary or above30.74 (22.19 to 40.86)25.12 (17.40 to 34.82)36.07 (26.21 to 47.27)0.002
Maternal education
 No education25.22 (18.13 to 33.95)21.85 (15.57 to 29.76)28.66 (20.51 to 38.47)<0.001
 Partial primary25.63 (18.32 to 34.63)24.70 (16.37 to 35.47)26.62 (18.71 to 36.39)0.661
 Complete primary23.96 (18.38 to 30.59)22.36 (16.39 to 29.73)25.46 (19.11 to 33.06)0.321
 Partial secondary22.15 (15.84 to 30.09)20.89 (14.08 to 29.85)23.38 (16.96 to 31.32)0.313
 Complete secondary or above27.35 (17.64 to 39.83)20.36 (11.41 to 33.68)33.83 (22.71 to 47.08)0.008
Paternal education
 No education26.45 (19.09 to 35.41)23.59 (16.27 to 32.92)29.19 (21.53 to 38.25)0.006
 Partial primary22.46 (15.95 to 30.64)21.32 (14.94 to 29.48)23.69 (15.68 to 34.13)0.532
 Complete primary20.84 (15.69 to 27.15)17.82 (12.70 to 24.42)23.95 (17.13 to 32.43)0.099
 Partial secondary22.53 (16.13 to 30.54)21.95 (15.70 to 29.82)23.14 (16.02 to 32.21)0.613
 Complete secondary or above26.66 (17.57 to 38.27)22.35 (13.46 to 34.76)30.64 (20.53 to 43.02)0.053
Maternal occupation
 Homemakers24.11 (17.70 to 31.94)21.47 (15.62 to 28.76)26.74 (19.61 to 35.32)<0.001
 Other27.89 (20.46 to 36.78)26.56 (16.98 to 39.01)29.16 (21.30 to 38.51)0.649
Paternal occupation
 Farmer18.48 (13.93 to 24.10)14.66 (10.94 to 19.37)22.13 (15.78 to 30.13)0.011
 Day labourer26.91 (18.98 to 36.65)26.22 (18.00 to 36.53)27.58 (19.61 to 37.28)0.509
 Salaried staff21.53 (13.86 to 31.87)16.97 (10.06 to 27.20)25.81 (17.04 to 37.07)0.006
 Business25.97 (18.86 to 34.61)23.26 (16.33 to 32.00)28.75 (20.38 to 38.88)0.092
 Others26.26 (19.06 to 34.99)23.63 (16.67 to 32.36)28.98 (20.76 to 38.85)0.082
Religion
 Muslim25.06 (18.37 to 33.20)22.47 (16.17 to 30.32)27.61 (20.36 to 36.27)<0.001
 Other20.43 (12.35 to 31.89)18.73 (10.35 to 31.52)22.25 (13.88 to 33.69)0.273
Household size
 ≤428.35 (20.65 to 37.56)26.09 (18.57 to 35.33)30.83 (22.84 to 40.16)<0.001
 ≥520.72 (15.48 to 27.15)17.54 (13.01 to 23.23)23.57 (17.21 to 31.40)0.005
Less than 5-year-old household member
 Yes23.48 (17.53 to 30.71)20.54 (15.04 to 27.40)25.65 (18.99 to 33.67)0.013
 No24.89 (18.23 to 33.01)22.44 (16.20 to 30.23)27.61 (20.25 to 36.42)0.001
6–10-year-old household member
 Yes22.71 (16.32 to 30.69)20.49 (14.37 to 28.35)24.7 (17.30 to 33.97)<0.001
 No25.35 (18.74 to 33.34)22.67 (16.41 to 30.43)28.16 (21.07 to 36.53)<0.001
Another adolescent household member
 Yes22.25 (16.48 to 29.34)19 (13.77 to 25.63)25.52 (18.87 to 33.53)<0.001
 No27.58 (19.98 to 36.75)26.14 (18.64 to 35.34)29 (21.12 to 38.39)0.036
≥60-year-old household member
 Yes23.41 (16.71 to 31.76)21.77 (15.30 to 30.01)24.98 (17.49 to 34.34)0.198
 No24.99 (18.51 to 32.84)22.12 (16.07 to 29.64)27.88 (20.77 to 36.32)<0.001
Food security status of household
 Food secure24.85 (17.20 to 34.49)23.17 (15.87 to 32.53)26.47 (18.34 to 36.59)0.009
 Mild food insecurity17.23 (14.23 to 20.72)14.4 (11.25 to 18.25)20.07 (14.69 to 26.80)0.117
 Moderate food insecurity23.89 (17.83 to 31.22)18.12 (12.71 to 25.18)29.74 (21.05 to 40.19)0.012
 Severe food insecurity37.93 (25.95 to 51.60)33.25 (21.83 to 47.05)43.00 (29.76 to 57.32)0.015
Household use of fuel
 Clean18.83 (11.22 to 29.87)11.96 (6.61 to 20.67)25.44 (15.64 to 38.56)<0.001
 Unclean24.95 (18.37 to 32.94)22.76 (16.53 to 30.47)27.13 (20.02 to 35.65)0.001
Household wealth
 Richest26.89 (17.22 to 39.40)22.74 (14.54 to 33.74)31.04 (19.66 to 45.29)0.002
 Richer25.62 (19.15 to 33.38)21.07 (14.89 to 28.94)30.13 (22.42 to 39.16)0.004
 Middle24.63 (18.06 to 32.64)23.42 (16.89 to 31.52)25.75 (18.57 to 34.52)0.306
 Poorer22.66 (16.56 to 30.19)21.49 (15.06 to 29.71)23.8 (17.29 to 31.82)0.389
 Poorest24.18 (16.80 to 33.50)21.73 (15.47 to 29.63)26.83 (17.70 to 38.49)0.078
Lifestyle variables
Smoking
 Currently smoke45.94 (34.61 to 57.70)45.95 (34.61 to 57.73)31.91 (9.45 to 67.80)0.446
 Currently do not smoke24.15 (17.84 to 31.84)21.17 (15.40 to 28.39)27.01 (20.07 to 35.29)<0.001
Any tobacco use
 Yes44.81 (33.69 to 56.47)44.42 (33.37 to 56.04)49.00 (22.14 to 76.45)0.753
 No24.00 (17.74 to 31.62)20.94 (15.27 to 28.03)26.91 (20.00 to 35.16)<0.001
Dietary diversity
 Inadequate (<5 food groups per day)23.33 (17.11 to 30.97)20.02 (14.38 to 27.19)26.34 (19.49 to 34.56)<0.001
 Adequate (≥5 food groups per day)25.86 (18.64 to 34.69)24.06 (16.87 to 33.10)27.85 (20.17 to 37.09)0.074
Fruits and vegetables intake
 Insufficient (<5 servings per day)24.51 (17.98 to 32.48)21.91 (15.74 to 29.63)27.01 (19.98 to 35.42)<0.001
 Sufficient (≥5 servings per day)24.60 (17.66 to 33.19)23.09 (14.98 to 33.85)27.03 (18.66 to 37.43)0.482
Processed food intake
 Yes23.74 (17.22 to 31.78)22.05 (16.01 to 29.57)25.66 (18.45 to 34.49)0.003
 No26.84 (19.43 to 35.82)21.88 (14.49 to 31.64)30.17 (22.11 to 39.67)0.011
Consumption of fortified oil
 Yes18.72 (12.54 to 27.00)16.2 (10.10 to 24.96)21.02 (14.03 to 30.25)0.122
 No26.21 (19.46 to 34.30)23.62 (17.21 to 31.49)28.85 (21.55 to 37.45)0.001
Consumption of iodised salt
 Yes18.96 (14.16 to 24.91)16.66 (12.36 to 22.08)21.21 (15.57 to 28.22)0.007
 No34.76 (25.15 to 45.79)31.7 (22.50 to 42.60)37.86 (27.50 to 49.46)0.012
Physical activity
 Insufficient (<150 minutes of moderate or <75 minutes of vigorous physical activity or equivalent/week)26.95 (19.97 to 35.28)20.2 (14.85 to 26.88)30.84 (22.79 to 40.25)<0.001
 Sufficient (≥150 minutes of moderate or ≥75 minutes of vigorous physical activity or equivalent/week)22.94 (16.53 to 30.90)22.76 (16.14 to 31.08)23.19 (16.67 to 31.30)0.816
Sedentary time/day
 ≤6 hours25.38 (18.04 to 34.46)23.07 (15.93 to 32.17)28.11 (20.14 to 37.74)0.017
 >6 hours23.93 (17.90 to 31.22)21.19 (15.51 to 28.26)26.36 (19.64 to 34.39)0.007
Television viewing time/day
 None20.71 (15.76 to 26.72)18.11 (13.04 to 24.58)23.18 (17.68 to 29.76)0.03
 ≤60 minutes23.44 (17.14 to 31.20)23.08 (16.80 to 30.83)23.86 (17.04 to 32.35)0.702
 61–120 minutes25.81 (17.54 to 36.26)21.07 (14.05 to 30.36)30.1 (20.09 to 42.45)0.005
 ≥121 minutes40.53 (28.53 to 53.78)34.65 (21.14 to 51.20)45 (33.20 to 57.40)0.066
Anthropometric variables
Height
 <140 cm19.72 (13.60 to 27.72)18.85 (13.10 to 26.35)20.85 (13.62 to 30.57)0.428
 ≥140–<160 cm26.61 (19.49 to 35.20)23.23 (15.84 to 32.72)28.24 (20.93 to 36.90)0.034
 ≥160 cm23.05 (17.19 to 30.18)22.61 (16.72 to 29.84)27.51 (19.34 to 37.52)0.186
Weight
 <30 kg21.89 (15.01 to 30.78)19.89 (13.90 to 27.62)24.61 (16.07 to 35.76)0.057
 ≤30–<50 kg25.52 (18.98 to 33.38)24.38 (17.79 to 32.46)26.34 (19.56 to 34.48)0.258
 ≥50 kg24.03 (16.80 to 33.12)19.4 (13.17 to 27.63)32.51 (23.39 to 43.19)<0.001
Body Mass Index
 Underweight24.41 (17.86 to 32.42)22.94 (16.68 to 30.69)26.14 (18.98 to 34.85)0.037
 Normal23.89 (17.81 to 31.25)20.28 (14.35 to 27.87)26.78 (20.18 to 34.60)0.003
 Overweight and obese28.17 (19.10 to 39.45)20.54 (11.23 to 34.55)32.86 (23.38 to 43.98)0.022
  • P value was significant at <0.05.

  • *The cut-off of PHQ-9 score ≥5 was categorised as any depression for this analysis.