Table 2

Adjusted* associations of community and community feature variables from separate models with new onset type 2 diabetes status

VariableOR (95% CI)
Community types
Model 1: administrative community type
 Township1
 Borough1.10 (1.04 to 1.16)
 City census tract1.34 (1.25 to 1.44)
Model 2: residential location, urban/rural
 Rural1
 Urbanised area1.14 (1.08 to 1.21)
 Urban cluster1.04 (0.98 to 1.11)
Model 3: combined location
 Township/rural1
 Township/urban cluster1.00 (0.92 to 1.08)
 Township/urbanised area1.06 (0.98 to 1.16)
 Borough+city census tract/rural1.04 (0.95 to 1.15)
 Borough/urban cluster1.09 (1.01 to 1.18)
 Borough/urbanised area1.15 (1.06 to 1.25)
 City census tract/urban cluster1.41 (1.22 to 1.62)
 City census tract/urbanised area1.33 (1.22 to 1.45)
Model 4: county
 Luzerne1
 Blair0.73 (0.57 to 0.95)
 Centre0.84 (0.75 to 0.94)
 Juniata1.19 (1.00 to 1.40)
 Lackawanna1.19 (1.07 to 1.31)
 Lebanon0.39 (0.16 to 0.93)
 Monroe0.78 (0.69 to 0.88)
 Schuylkill0.85 (0.78 to 0.92)
 Sullivan0.60 (0.45 to 0.81)
 Union0.77 (0.64 to 0.93)
Community features, all communities combined
Model 5: community socioeconomic deprivation, quartiles§
 10.82 (0.76 to 0.88)
 20.87 (0.81 to 0.93)
 30.89 (0.83 to 0.96)
 41
Model 6: greenness (normalised difference vegetation index)
 11
 20.88 (0.85 to 0.93)
 30.84 (0.80 to 0.88)
  • *Logistic regression models using generalised estimating equations with robust SEs; one community or community feature variable was in the model at a time; models adjusted for sex, race (white vs non-white), ethnicity (Hispanic vs non-Hispanic), age (age, age2, age3) and Medical Assistance status.

  • †This is a combination of administrative community type and residential location (urban/rural); the few persons in city census tract/rural were combined with borough/rural.

  • ‡Only counties with CI excluding 1.0 are shown in table. Luzerne County was selected as the reference group because it is the most populous county in the study region.

  • §Quartile cutoffs were defined within the three time periods; the range of values for persons in Q1, Q2, Q3 and Q4 were −25.06 to −1.82; −1.99 to 0.10; 0.005 to 2.05; and 1.89 to 12.4, respectively.

  • ¶The range of values in T1, T2 and T3 were 0.07 to 0.627; 0.63 to 0.756; and 0.76 to 0.94, respectively.