Table 1

Frequency of funding sources and conflicts of interest in journal articles, press releases and news reports

All studiesStudies with media coverage
2011201520112015
Information in journal articleN=996N=254N=429N=134
Funding source reported
 Any funding reported94% (934/996)84% (214/254)93% (401/429)82% (110/134)
 Any industry17% (169/996)7% (17/254)19% (82/429)7% (9/134)
Single non-industry sources
 Government6% (56/996)28% (71/254)6% (24/429)22% (30/134)
 Charity13% (125/996)6% (16/254)13% (55/429)8% (11/134)
 Internal/other4% (38/996)8% (20/254)4% (18/429)8% (11/134)
 Multiple non-industry sources55% (546/996)41% (104/254)52% (222/429)42% (56/134)
 None stated6% (62/996)16% (40/254)7% (28/429)18% (24/134)
Authors COI disclosed
 Declare ‘none’57% (563/996)50% (126/254)54% (231/429)48% (64/134)
 Declare >1 conflict27% (268/996)22% (55/254)29% (123/429)21% (28/134)
 No statement16% (165/996)29% (73/254)17% (75/429)31% (42/134)
Information in press releases
 Funding source reported
  Report any funding source
   All press releases29% (284/996)52% (131/254)35% (150/429)57% (76/134)
   University59% (253/426)62% (127/206)
   Journal5% (31/570)10% (23/223)
   Report industry funding as % of studies with industry funding14% (24/169)41% (7/17)24% (20/82)44% (4/9)
Authors COI disclosed
 Report COI as % of studies where COI declared0.5% (1/268)2% (1/55)0% (0/123)4% (1/28)
 Report no COI as % of studies that declared none1% (4/563)0% (0/126)0.4% (1/231)0% (0/64)
Information in news stories
 Funding source reported
  Report any funding9% (112/1250)10% (58/578)
  Report industry funding as % of studies with industry funding17% (38/226)0% (0/27)
Authors COI disclosed
 Report COI as % of studies where COI declared1% (4/380)0% (0/114)
 Report no COI as % of studies that declared none0.1% (1/675)0% (0/286)
  • Studies could belong to more than one funding category (eg, government and industry).

  • COI, conflict of interest.