Table 2

Study characteristics

First author
(publication year)
YearStudy location(s)PopulationDisease outbreakStudy typeMethod(s) of data collectionCentre(s) (number)
Abolfotouh et al442015Saudi ArabiaVariousMERSQuantitativeSurveyMulticentre (3)
Al-Dorzi et al552015Saudi ArabiaVariousMERSMixed-methodsRegistry data, individual interview(s), open discussionsMonocentre
Al Ghobain et al 512015Saudi ArabiaPhysiciansMERSQuantitativeSurveyMulticentre (4)
Andertun et al482014–2015Sierra LeoneVariousEbolaQualitativeIndividual interview(s), focus group(s)Unknown
Bai et al612003TaiwanVariousSARS (non-COVID-19)QuantitativeSurveyMonocentre
Belfroid et al392016The NetherlandsVariousEbolaQualitativeIndividual interview(s)Unknown
Bell et al402016LiberiaVariousEbolaQualitativeIndividual interview(s)Multicentre (unknown)
1132020VariousVariousCOVID-19QuantitativeSurveyWorldwide
Bournes et al782003CanadaVariousSARS (non-COVID-19)QualitativeIndividual interview(s)Monocentre
Brooks et al10VariousVariousVariousVariousSystematic reviewNANA
1142014Saudi ArabiaNursesMERSQuantitativeSurveyMonocentre
Carvalho et al412014–2015SpainVariousEbolaQuantitativeSurveyMonocentre
Chan et al622003SingaporeVariousSARS (non-COVID-19)QuantitativeSurveyMonocentre
Chan et al562003ChinaNursesSARS (non-COVID-19)QuantitativeSurveyMulticentre (8)
Chen et al422003TaiwanNursesSARS (non-COVID-19)QuantitativeSurveyMonocentre
Chen et al772003TaiwanVariousSARS (non-COVID-19)QuantitativeSurvey, antibody testMonocentre
Chen et al752003TaiwanNursesSARS (non-COVID-19)QuantitativeSurveyMonocentre
Chua et al622003ChinaVariousSARS (non-COVID-19)QuantitativeSurveyMulticentre (2)
Dai et al742020ChinaVariousCOVID-19QuantitativeSurveyNationwide
1132004CanadaNursesSARS (non-COVID-19)QuantitativeSurveyUnknown
Gearing et al832003CanadaVariousSARS (non-COVID-19)QualitativeFocus group(s)Monocentre
1151995, 2000–2001, 2002–2003Congo-Kinshasa, Congo-Brazzaville, UgandaNursesEbolaQualitativeIndividual interview(s), focus group(s)Unknown
Huang et al862020ChinaNursesCOVID-19QuantitativeSurveyNationwide
Grace et al822003CanadaPhysiciansSARS (non-COVID-19)Mixed-methodsSurvey, open-ended survey questionsMulticentre (3)
1162003JapanVariousSARS (non-COVID-19)QuantitativeSurveyMulticentre (7)
Jeong-Sil et al872015South KoreaNursesMERSQuantitativeSurveyMulticentre (6)
Kang et al572015South KoreaNursesMERSQualitativeIndividual interview(s), focus group(s)Multicentre (9)
Khalid et al 692014Saudi ArabiaVariousMERSQuantitativeSurveyMonocentre
Khee et al902003SingaporeVariousSARS (non-COVID-19)QualitativeObservationsMonocentre
Kim et al632015South KoreaNursesMERSQuantitativeSurveyMulticentre (15)
Kim et al842016–2017South KoreaNursesMERSQualitativeIndividual interview(s)Multicentre (4)
Koh et al62003SingaporeVariousSARS (non-COVID-19)QuantitativeSurveyMulticentre (9)
117VariousVariousVariousSARS (non-COVID-19)Systematic reviewNANA
Lai et al142019ChinaVariousCOVID-19QuantitativeSurveyMulticentre (34)
Lee et al642003TaiwanNursesSARS (non-COVID-19)QualitativeIndividual interview(s)Monocentre
Lehmann et al54UnknownGermanyVariousEbolaQuantitativeSurveyMulticentre(2)
Li et al452015–2016LiberiaVariousEbolaQualitativeIndividual interview(s)Monocentre
Li et al122020ChinaNursesCOVID-19QuantitativeSurveyNationwide
Lin et al702003TaiwanVariousSARS (non-COVID-19)QuantitativeSurveyMonocentre
Liu et al71UnknownChinaNursesEbolaQualitativeIndividual interview(s)Monocentre
1182006ChinaVariousSARS (non-COVID-19)QuantitativeSurveyMonocentre
Liu et al122020ChinaVariousCOVID-19QuantitativeSurveyNationwide
Lu et al652003–2004TaiwanVariousSARS (non-COVID-19)Mixed-methodsSurvey, open-ended survey questionsMonocentre
Marjanovic et al662004CanadaNursesSARS (non-COVID-19)QuantitativeSurveyNationwide
Marrs et al49UnknownUSAVariousEbolaQuantitativeSurveyMonocentre
Maunder et al79UnknownCanadaVariousSARS (non-COVID-19)Focused ReviewNANA
Maunder et al792003CanadaVariousSARS (non-COVID-19)QuantitativeSurveyMulticentre (3)
Maunder et al462004–2005CanadaVariousSARS (non-COVID-19)QuantitativeSurveyMulticentre (13)
Maunder et al72003CanadaVariousSARS (non-COVID-19)QualitativeIndividual interview(s), observationsMonocentre
O'Boyle et al802003USANursesPublic health emergenciesQualitativeFocus group(s)Multicentre (3)
O'Sullivan et al52UnknownCanadaNursesSARS (non-COVID-19)QualitativeFocus group(s)Nationwide
Poon et al672003ChinaVariousSARS (non-COVID-19)QuantitativeSurveyMonocentre
Qi et al762020ChinaVariousCOVID-19QuantitativeSurveyNationwide
1192003CanadaPhysiciansSARS (non-COVID-19)QualitativeIndividual interview(s)Multicentre (4)
Raven et al582015Sierra LeoneVariousEbolaQualitativeIndividual interview(s)Nationwide
1202003TaiwanNursesSARS (non-COVID-19)QualitativeFocus groups, open-ended survey questionsMulticentre (unknown)
Shih et al912003TaiwanNursesSARS (non-COVID-19)QualitativeIndividual interview(s)Multicentre (4)
Sin et al812003SingaporeParamedicsSARS (non-COVID-19)QuantitativeSurveyMonocentre
Smith et al852016USAVariousEbolaQualitativeIndividual interview(s)Monocentre
Son et al92015South KoreaVariousMERSQualitativeWritten notesMonocentre
Son et al682015South KoreaVariousMERSQuantitativeSurveyMonocentre
Speroni et al34*2014USANursesEbolaQuantitativeSurveyNationwide
Speroni et al35*2014USANursesEbolaQualitativeOpen-ended survey questionsNationwide
Styra et al592003CanadaVariousSARS (non-COVID-19)QuantitativeSurveyMonocentre
Su et al732003TaiwanNursesSARS (non-COVID-19)QuantitativeSurveyMonocentre
Tam et al722003ChinaVariousSARS (non-COVID-19)QuantitativeSurveyMulticentre (3)
Tolomiczenko et al602003CanadaVariousSARS (non-COVID-19)QuantitativeSurveyMonocentre
von Strauss et al432014–2015Sierra LeoneNursesEbolaQuantitativeSurvey, open-ended survey questionsMonocentre
Wong et al472003ChinaVariousSARS (non-COVID-19)QuantitativeSurveyMulticentre (14)
Wu et al362006ChinaVariousSARS (non-COVID-19)QuantitativeSurveyMonocentre
Wu et al52006ChinaVariousSARS (non-COVID-19)QuantitativeSurveyMonocentre
Xiao et al112020ChinaVariousCOVID-19QuantitativeSurveyMulticentre (unknown)
Zhu et al132020ChinaVariousCOVID-19QuantitativeSurveyMonocentre
  • *Articles reporting the same study.

  • †Articles reporting the same study.

  • MERS, middle east respiratory syndrome; NA, not applicable.