Table 2

Data collection tools for phase 1

Data collectedOutcome measurement toolDescription of outcome measurement toolPsychometric properties of outcome measurement tool
Shoulder painWheelchair User’s Shoulder Pain IndexAssesses the intensity of pain during activities of daily living. Scores range from 0 to 150 with a minimal detectable change of 5.1 points.High internal consistency (Cronbach alpha=0.97) and a high test–retest reliability intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC)=0.9936.
Neuropathic painDouleur Neuropathique 4Determines the presence of neuropathic pain through symptoms, characteristics and location of pain in relation to the level of the injury.High inter-rater reliability values of between 0.70 and 0.9637.
Average pain severityNumeric Rating ScaleMeasures the subjective intensity of an individual’s pain. Is an 11-point Likert scale where ‘0’=no pain and ‘10’=the most intense pain imaginable experienced in the last 24 hours.Adequate construct and content validity in SCI population r=0.3838 39
Pain medication misusePain Medication QuestionnaireAssesses the risk for pain medication misuse in individuals who report painAdequate construct and content validity. Cronbach’s alpha of 0.73 and r=0.84 in a test–retest reliability40.
Wheelchair functionWheelchair Skills Test QuestionnaireDetermines an individual’s wheelchair skills in their daily environmentHigh reliability ∝=0.90. Test–retest reliability 0.91 (ICC=0.84–0.94). High inter-rater reliability 0.86 (ICC=0.92–0.95) and intra-rater reliability 0.95 (p=0.96)41.
Quality of lifeWHO Quality of Life AssessmentDetermines quality of life and nine items (seven items from the physical health domain and the two overall quality of life and general health items) will be usedHigh reliability at ∝=0.74–0.87
item-domain validity (r=0.41–0.77), correlated with the SF-36 at r=0.33–0.78). Excellent inter-rater reliability (ICC=0.84–0.93)42.
Community reintegrationNormal Living IndexAssesses an individual’s reintegration to their community. Both the total score=sum (points all 11 items) and the adjusted score = (total score)/110 * 100 can be calculated.Excellent reliability coefficient 0.97 (ICC 0.97–0.98)43.
Presence of scapular dyskinesisScapular Dyskinesis TestObserves for abnormal scapular motion and position by using a video observation from posterior of the participant’s upper back and shoulder girdle in sitting. All participants’ torso will be exposed with females wearing their brassieres. Participants will be instructed to perform five repetitions of bilateral, active weighted (1.4 kg) shoulder abduction and flexion44.Validity (p<0.001) was confirmed with a reliability of a Kappa of 0.8544.
Pectoralis minor muscle (PMm) lengthVernier caliper INSIZE CO., LTD, 300 mmThe PMm is measured in supine together with the participant’s height (which will be measured using a tape measure). PMm length is expressed as Pectoralis Minor Index and is calculated as:
(PMm length(cm) / height(cm) x 100)13.
ICC=0.95–0.97; SEM=0.31–0.42 cm; inter-rater reliability=0.86–0.87; SEM=0.70–0.84 cm45.
  • SCI, spinal cord injury.