Table 2

Summary of WEMWBS and PHQ-9 scores and changes in self-reported mental health compared with pre-COVID-19

Participant response
WEMWBS* (n=922)44.9±11.3
PHQ-9* (n=927)7.53±6.11
Mental health changes since COVID-19 (n=893) n (%)
 Worse397 (44.5%)
 About the same445 (49.8%)
 Better51 (5.7%)
  • *Mean and SD.

  • PHQ-9, Patient Health Questionnaire; WEMWBS, Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale.