Table 5

Comparison between clusters of actions, concerns, lifestyle behaviours, depression and well-being scores, impact on health management, and use of platforms for health management. numeric variables were compared using t-test, binary variables were compared using proportions z-test

Negative ClusterPositive ClusterTest resultP value
ActionsSocial distancing3031880.830.41
Self-isolation202104−1.720.09
Wearing protective apparel127810.550.58
Online shopping1871170.530.60
Shielding10964−0.140.89
All above5126−0.710.48
ConcernsBecoming infected7.727.05−3.29<0.01
Severe illness or death7.887.25−2.820.01
Spreading COVID-19 to others7.126.76−1.440.15
Access to healthcare6.064.97−4.28<0.01
Appropriate care if infected6.885.76−4.22<0.01
Worse care compared with low-risk individuals6.025.05−3.23<0.01
LifestyleShopping3.313.22−1.160.25
Diet1.751.41−3.72<0.01
Alcohol consumption0.050.090.620.53
Physical activity (amount)−0.78−0.285.25<0.01
Physical activity(type)0.750.780.80.43
Sleep1.931.37−5.15<0.01
Smoking (indicated yes)0.050.01−2.810.01
Smoking (impact)0.150−0.160.87
E-cigarettes (indicated yes)0.040.03−1.140.25
E-cigarettes (impact)0.530.33−0.480.64
Recreational drugs (indicated yes)0.020.02−0.070.94
Recreational drugs (impact)0.290−0.370.72
DepressionPHQ-9 score9.165.49−7.63<0.01
Well-beingWEMWBS score42.2349.368.29<0.01
Change to healthcare supportGeneral management398237−1.290.2
Appointments311161−2.93<0.01
Medication14675−1.330.19
Elective surgery50360.910.36
Communications platform8444−0.80.43
Clinician9150−0.550.59
Other5021−1.450.15
No change55603.61<0.01
Platforms used to receive careSocial media23191.080.28
Mobile phone app34342.270.02
Email6035−0.130.90
Telephone219111−2.050.04
Virtual consultation4323−0.460.65
Other18181.610.11
No new platforms118790.940.35
Still face-to-face189−0.450.65
Satisfied with platforms0.390.73.32<0.01
Satisfied with information0.330.643.46<0.01
Continue using in the future1861241.310.19
  • Test results and p values were rounded to two decimal places.

  • PHQ-9, Patient Health Questionnaire; WEMWBS, Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale.