Table 3

Comparison of national and effective research antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) interventions

AMS interventions
(national interventions identified in Ref. 6, effective research interventions identified in stage 2 rapid review)
Targeted at prescribersTargeted at community pharmacy staff
National and effective research interventions
1. CMO letters to high prescribing practices54
2. FeverPAIN (clinical score) (with/without rapid antigen detection test)55
3. TARGET online toolkit (the study involved workshops in general practices promoting TARGET toolkit)57
4. STAR online communications skills training (the study involved also a practice seminar; nationally available training is online only)50
National interventions (without research evidence of effectiveness)
5. AMS Competencies
6. UK 5-year AMR strategy
7. NG15 (guideline)
8. NG63 (guideline)
9. NG79 (guideline)
10. NG84 (guideline)
11. NICE QS61 (quality standards)
12. NICE QS121 (quality standards)
13. NICE CG69 (guideline)
14. PHE managing infections (guideline)
15. Royal Pharmaceutical Society (RPS) AMS quick reference guide (guideline summary)
16. PHE Fingertips (website with prescribing data)
17. PrescQIPP (website with prescribing data)
18. Centor (clinical score)
19. Managing Acute Respiratory Tract Infections e-module (online training)
20. Health Education England video for GPs (online training)
21. Centre for Pharmacy Postgraduate Education Antimicrobial stewardship e-module (online training)
22. The Learning Pharmacy (online training)
23. UK Clinical Pharmacy Association/RPS professional practice curriculum (online training)
24. Antibiotic Guardian (campaign)
25. Antibiotic Action (campaign)
26. Treat Yourself Better with Pharmacist Advice (campaign)
Effective research-only interventions (not nationally implemented)
27. Electronic decision support tools53
28. CRP POCT (with/without communication skills training)56
29. Training and using interactive booklet (‘When Should I Worry’) with parents/cares of children with RTIs52
30. Evidence-based practice protocol for management of sore throats51
31. Workshops on antibiotic prescribing58
  • CMO, chief medical officer; CRP POCT, C reactive protein point-of-care testing; GP, general practitioner; NICE, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence; PHE, Public Health England; RPS, Royal Pharmaceutical Society; RTI, respiratory tract infection.