Table 4

Summary of intervention content in national and research interventions

National interventions
(n=26) *
Research interventions
(n=5) †
All interventions
(n=31)
TDF domains (bold=key six TDF domains with a rank number)
Knowledge21425
Skills (3)12517
Environmental context and resources (4)12315
Beliefs about consequences (1)12214
Behavioural regulation13013
Social influences (2)7411
Social/professional role and identity617
Intentions (5)707
Memory, attention, decision making325
Reinforcement404
Goals213
Optimism202
Beliefs about capabilities101
Emotions (6)101
Intervention functions
Training24327
Enablement19524
Education19423
Persuasion12012
Incentivisation549
Environmental restructuring336
Modelling303
Coercion202
BCTs
Instruction on how to perform the behaviour24529
Information about health consequences14317
Adding objects to the environment9312
Feedback on behaviour729
Credible source718
Action planning617
Demonstrating the behaviour437
Information about social, environmental consequences527
Social comparisons617
Social support (practical)617
Identification of self as a role model606
Self-monitoring of behaviour606
Social support (unspecified)246
Behavioural substitution235
Feedback on outcome(s) of behaviour505
Behavioural practice/rehearsal303
Self-monitoring of outcomes303
Prompts/cues123
Future punishment202
Non-specific reward202
Salience of consequences202
Social/non-material reward202
Commitment101
Focus on past success101
Framing/reframing101
Goal setting101
Material reward101
Pharmacological support101
Problem solving101
Pros and cons101
Restructuring the physical environment101
Incentive101
Monitoring of the behaviour by others101
Verbal persuasion about capabilities011
  • *Twenty-six national interventions identified in the previous project,6 including four effective research interventions.

  • †Five effective research interventions identified in this project, without the four effective research interventions that were also nationally implemented.

  • BCT, behaviour change technique; TDF, Theoretical Domains Framework.