Table 2

ORs and 95% CIs of prefrailty and frailty compared with non-frailty according to age at and type of retirement

PrefrailtyFrailty
OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)
Model 1†Model 2‡Model 1†Model 2‡
Categories of retirement age (years)
 ≥700.78 (0.25 to 2.46)0.83 (0.26 to 2.62)0.28 (0.06 to 1.40)0.38 (0.08 to 1.97)
 68–690.51 (0.15 to 1.73)0.55 (0.16 to 1.89)0.11 (0.01 to 1.03)0.10 (0.01 to 1.02)
 66–670.49 (0.23 to 1.04)0.52 (0.24 to 1.12)0.07 (0.01 to 0.34)***0.07 (0.01 to 0.37)**
 64–650.37 (0.21 to 0.64)***0.40 (0.22 to 0.70)***0.19 (0.09 to 0.40)***0.21 (0.10 to 0.46)***
 62–630.61 (0.35 to 1.06)0.67 (0.38 to 1.17)0.20 (0.09 to 0.45)***0.24 (0.11 to 0.54)***
 60–610.49 (0.29 to 0.85)**0.48 (0.28 to 0.83)**0.22 (0.10 to 0.47)***0.22 (0.10 to 0.47)***
 58–590.45 (0.24 to 0.83)**0.46 (0.25 to 0.87)*0.28 (0.12 to 0.66)**0.29 (0.12 to 0.70)**
 56–570.50 (0.26 to 0.98)*0.49 (0.25 to 0.98)*0.51 (0.21 to 1.24)0.45 (0.18 to 1.14)
 ≤55(Ref)(Ref)(Ref)(Ref)
Type of retirement
 Old age(Ref)(Ref)(Ref)(Ref)
 Early old age1.02 (0.74 to 1.40)0.99 (0.72 to 1.37)1.22 (0.71 to 2.09)1.24 (0.72 to 2.16)
 Pension benefit package0.66 (0.47 to 0.91)*0.61 (0.44 to 0.85)**0.71 (0.39 to 1.30)0.62 (0.33 to 1.15)
 Unemployment0.89 (0.56 to 1.41)0.86 (0.54 to 1.37)1.36 (0.62 to 2.98)1.44 (0.64 to 3.21)
 Disability1.62 (1.07 to 2.45)*1.46 (0.96 to 2.23)4.34 (2.47 to 7.63)***3.52 (1.97 to 6.29)***
Stressfulness of work career
 Per 1-unit increase0.94 (0.89 to 0.99)*0.94 (0.90 to 0.99)*0.94 (0.86 to 1.03)0.95 (0.87 to 1.04)
  • *P<0.001; **P<0.01; ***P<0.05.

  • †Model 1 adjusted for age in the year 2000 (age at measuring frailty).

  • ‡Model 2 adjusted additionally for smoking, alcohol consumption, cardiovascular disease and diabetes.