Table 3

Crude and adjusted ORs for ever and current HTP use among Guatemalan youth*

Ever HTP use (not current)
n=241 (8.6%)
Current HTP use
n=84 (2.9%)
%OR95%CIAOR95%CI%OR95%CIAOR95%CI
Sociodemographic characteristics
Sex
 Female7.56ReferenceReference2.63ReferenceReference
 Male9.751.40‡(1.07 to 1.84)1.22(0.86 to 1.72)3.421.31(0.84 to 2.06)1.03(0.56 to 1.89)
Age (mean)15.871.72‡(1.53 to 1.94)1.20(0.97 to 1.50)15.651.39‡(1.16 to 1.65)0.85(0.58 to 1.25)
Grade—US categories
 Basico (grades 8–9)3.77ReferenceReference1.43ReferenceReference
 Bachillerato (grades 10–12)12.443.45‡(2.47 to 4.82)0.92(0.49 to 1.71)4.452.86‡(1.69 to 4.83)2.18(0.68 to 6.96)
School performance
 <80%11.78ReferenceReference4.54ReferenceReference
 80%–89%10.070.71(0.50 to 1.01)1.04(0.67 to 1.63)3.360.69(0.41 to 1.17)0.74(0.36 to 1.52)
 90%–100%5.240.29‡(0.19 to 0.45)0.69(0.38 to 1.25)1.810.38‡(0.20 to 0.72)0.84(0.35 to 2.00)
Parents’ highest educational attainment
 Secondary school or less16.67ReferenceReference2.44ReferenceReference
 High school or technical school10.900.63(0.28 to 1.43)0.50(0.18 to 1.69)2.921.37(0.18 to 10.70)0.62(0.07 to 5.60)
 University or more8.120.48(0.22 to 1.04)0.36(0.12 to 1.07)3.291.52(0.21 to 11.25)0.63(0.07 to 5.51)
 Missing5.150.27‡(0.09 to 0.80)0.28(0.06 to 1.37)0.770.72(0.06 to 8.11)0.00NA
Substance use variables%OR95%CIAOR95%CI%OR95%CIAOR95%CI
Cigarette smoker§
 Never (unsusceptible)1.75ReferenceReference
 Never (susceptible)4.592.76‡(1.60 to 4.76)1.34(0.69 to 2.61)
 Ever (not current)18.3712.70‡(7.92 to 20.36)3.73‡(2.03 to 6.82)1.59ReferenceReference
 Current37.9834.93‡(21.01 to 58.08)6.63‡(3.20 to 13.74)24.5613.81‡(8.79 to 21.68)3.90‡(1.90 to 8.02)
E-cigarette user§
 Never (unsusceptible)0.42ReferenceReference
 Never (susceptible)0.551.31(0.26 to 6.49)0.71(0.13 to 3.92)
 Ever (not current)11.1929.66‡(9.37 to 93.89)9.31‡(2.61 to 33.23)0.25ReferenceReference
 Current20.0059.31‡(18.84 to 186.69)10.40‡(2.75 to 39.17)11.7345.24‡(19.32 to 105.94)46.12‡(16.15 to 131.74)
Alcohol¶
 Never1.47ReferenceReference
 Ever (not current)4.222.96‡(1.47 to 5.97)1.14(0.50 to 2.60)
 Current (no binge)8.185.99‡(3.02 to 11.87)1.19(0.52 to 2.75)1.73ReferenceReference
 Current (binge)26.2523.92‡(12.43 to 46.03)2.53‡(1.08 to 5.95)10.124.55‡(2.94 to 7.06)0.53(0.27 to 1.06)
Marijuana
 Never6.07ReferenceReference1.74ReferenceReference
 Ever (not current)29.036.18‡(4.20 to 9.09)1.37(0.84 to 2.22)16.678.54‡(5.03 to 14.51)1.91(0.87 to 4.18)
 Current45.9812.57‡(7.93 to 19.93)2.29‡(1.27 to 4.13)25.4010.64‡(5.77 to 19.60)1.32(0.50 to 3.45)
Internet cigarette ad exposure
 Never6.54ReferenceReference1.85ReferenceReference
 Rarely/sometimes8.881.46‡(1.07 to 2.00)1.13(0.74 to 1.75)3.121.60(0.92 to 2.78)1.27(0.55 to 2.90)
 Mostly/always14.332.56‡(1.69 to 3.88)1.50(0.81 to 2.77)6.883.37‡(1.75 to 6.51)2.65(0.91 to 7.71)
Internet e-cigarette ad exposure
 Never5.45ReferenceReference2.04ReferenceReference
 Rarely/sometimes8.091.54‡(1.08 to 2.18)0.67(0.41 to 1.09)2.731.37(0.77 to 2.45)0.49(0.20 to 1.18)
 Mostly/always16.413.61‡(2.45 to 5.31)0.98(0.54 to 1.77)6.522.95‡(1.59 to 5.47)0.40(0.14 to 1.13)
Family member smokes cigarettes
 No5.28ReferenceReference2.07ReferenceReference
 Yes14.883.10‡(2.36 to 4.07)1.70‡(1.19 to 2.45)5.012.28‡(1.47 to 3.54)2.00‡(1.03 to 3.88)
Family member smokes e-cigarettes
 No6.58ReferenceReference2.42ReferenceReference
 Yes16.492.64‡(1.98 to 3.51)1.37(0.94 to 2.01)5.742.19‡(1.39 to 3.46)0.74(0.38 to 1.46)
Family member uses HTP
 No8.09ReferenceReference2.86ReferenceReference
 Yes12.401.58‡(1.13 to 2.23)0.90(0.58 to 1.42)4.601.49(0.86 to 2.60)1.08(0.50 to 2.33)
Friend smokes cigarettes
 No4.77ReferenceReference1.12ReferenceReference
 Yes12.072.71‡(2.01 to 3.66)0.77(0.50 to 1.18)4.894.03‡(2.29 to 7.07)0.83(0.38 to 1.82)
Friend uses e-cigarettes
 No3.97ReferenceReference0.60ReferenceReference
 Yes10.222.93‡(2.06 to 4.18)0.51‡(0.30 to 0.86)4.636.52‡(3.00 to 14.19)0.61(0.21 to 1.77)
Friend uses HTP
 No6.72ReferenceReference1.19ReferenceReference
 Yes21.143.98‡(2.94 to 5.39)7.28‡(4.64 to 11.43)15.6512.40‡(7.81 to 19.71)21.06‡(11.13 to 39.85)
Constructed scales (score range)MeanOR95%CIAOR95%CIMeanOR95%CIAOR95%CI
Sensation seeking (1–4)3.102.46‡(1.97 to 3.07)1.27(0.96 to 1.68)3.253.34‡(2.26 to 4.92)1.34(0.80 to 2.27)
Technophilia (0–7)5.961.40‡(1.18 to 1.67)1.12(0.89 to 1.40)6.111.81‡(1.32 to 2.48)1.34(0.90 to 2.00)
Family Affluence Scale (0–9)7.641.18‡(1.07 to 1.30)1.15‡(1.02 to 1.31)7.631.18‡(1.01 to 1.38)1.04(0.84 to 1.29)
  • *All models include a random intercept for each participant to account for school clustering.

  • †Adjusted models are adjusted for all independent variables.

  • ‡Significant at α=0.05.

  • §Due to low counts, for current use models, cigarette and e-cigarette use was combined to current user versus non-current user.

  • ¶Due to low counts, alcohol use was combined to non-binge versus binge in the last month.

  • AOR, adjusted OR; HTP, heated tobacco product; NA, not applicable.