Table 2

Coefficients of the predictive model for changes in stress

nSingle predictor variablesFull modelP value
BSE95.0% CIP valueBSE95.0% CI
LLULLLUL
Time since outbreak start (per 7-day increase)5359−0.550.01−0.09−0.07<0.001−0.180.01−0.04−0.010.002
General demographics
Age (per 10-year increase)5357−0.960.01−0.11−0.09<0.001−0.520.01−0.07−0.04<0.001
Male sex (vs female)5358−2.020.19−2.38−1.65<0.001−0.970.19−1.35−0.60<0.001
Political views (vs centre or others)
 Left wing46570.850.200.471.24<0.0010.370.180.010.720.042
 Right wing46570.210.28−0.340.750.4570.310.24−0.170.790.206
Education: no university (vs university)5327−0.200.18−0.550.160.277−0.220.19−0.590.140.230
Socioeconomic, occupational and living situation
Total family income (vs >$C100k)
 < $C40k per year50090.720.310.121.330.0190.300.18−0.050.650.094
 $C40 to $C100k per year50090.390.190.020.750.0390.350.31−0.250.950.256
Employment status (vs employed):
 Unemployed, on leave or student53590.380.26−0.130.880.1440.070.26−0.450.590.787
 Retired5359−2.370.19−2.75−2.00<0.001−0.150.25−0.640.340.544
Work contact with general public (vs not)51891.760.261.262.26<0.0010.580.250.081.070.022
Living in apartment or condo (vs house)48580.360.21−0.050.770.089−0.100.21−0.500.310.631
Health and risks factors
C19 Symptoms index (scale from 0 to 30)53590.230.020.190.28<0.0010.140.020.090.19<0.001
Physical condition at risk* (vs no condition at risk)5342−0.760.17−1.09−0.42<0.0010.150.18−0.210.500.415
Sleep duration (per hour increase)4804−0.590.06−0.1−0.48<0.001−0.530.05−0.64−0.42<0.001
Travelled abroad in last 60 days (vs no travel)4960−0.450.21−0.86−0.040.033−0.190.26−0.700.330.472
Psychological domain
Preoutbreak PSS (0–40 scale)4920−0.440.02−0.47−0.41<0.001
DOCS—contamination (0–20 scale)47170.470.020.430.52<0.0010.380.020.340.42<0.001
Big 5 Personality (2–10 scale)
 Extraversion46800.150.040.070.23<0.0010.130.040.060.210.001
 Agreeableness46810.000.05−0.100.110.9330.050.05−0.050.140.319
 Conscientiousness46810.160.050.060.260.0020.130.050.040.230.007
 Neuroticism46810.250.040.170.33<0.0010.350.050.250.44<0.001
 Openness to Experiences4681−0.010.05−0.110.080.7780.070.04−0.020.160.116
Brief Resilient Coping Scale (4–20 scale)1663−0.170.03−0.23−0.11<0.001−0.240.03−0.30−0.17<0.001
Mental disorder diagnosis (vs no diagnosis)53262.340.201.952.74<0.0011.140.200.741.54<0.001
Social domain
Family relationship (per 10 units; 0–100 scale)5028−0.550.00−0.06−0.05<0.001−0.390.00−0.05−0.03<0.001
Has underage children (vs no underage children)50922.160.241.692.63<0.0010.890.230.431.34<0.001
Behavioural domain
Weekly alcohol consumption (vs no drinks)
 One to five drinks5358−0.180.21−0.580.230.3940.190.20−0.200.570.344
 More than five drinks53580.150.21−0.270.560.4900.610.200.211.010.003
Weekly cannabis or illicit drugs use (vs no use)53121.130.260.631.63<0.0010.450.25−0.030.930.066
Spent 30 min or less (vs more than 30 min):
 Outdoor53170.910.180.561.25<0.0010.070.19−0.320.450.736
 Exercising52951.030.170.701.37<0.0010.490.190.120.870.010
 Following COVID-19 news5296−0.250.17−0.590.080.141−0.240.17−0.570.090.155
 Social interactions in person52010.140.17−0.200.480.4060.210.16−0.110.530.205
 Social interactions virtually5277−0.460.18−0.80−0.110.0090.010.17−0.330.340.969
 Doing an artistic activity52100.160.20−0.230.560.4210.500.190.120.880.010
  • Coefficient parameters for multiple linear regression models including only each single predictors and baseline stress (left panel) and for the full model (right panel). B: Unstandardised coefficients (calculated per one unit for continuous variables, except for the time elapsed since the start of the outbreak, which was calculated for each 7 days, as well as age and family relationships which were calculated per 10 units). Units (for continuous variables) and reference groups (for categorical variables) are presented in parenthesis in the first column. Family relationship rated on scale from ‘0—very difficult/conflictual’, ‘50—neutral’ to ‘100—excellent’.

  • *Physical condition at risk for COVID-19: for example, respiratory, cardiovascular or autoimmune conditions.

  • DOCS, Dimensional Obsessive Compulsive Scale; LL, lower limit; PSS, Perceived Stress Scale; SE, standard error of B; UL, upper limit.