Table 1

Characteristics of individuals newly prescribed proton pump inhibitors (PPI) and histamine-2 receptor antagonists (H2RA)

CharacteristicPPIH2RA
Total1 699 837385 988
Male, n (%)768 781 (45.2)167 683 (43.4)
Age, years (mean, SD)53.4 (18.9)48.6 (21.1)
Age group, n (%)
 <18 years34 590 (2.0)30 057 (7.8)
 18–39 years393 052 (23.1)109 205 (28.3)
 40–59 years596 469 (35.1)116 174 (30.1)
 ≥60 years675 726 (39.8)130 552 (33.8)
Evidence-based indication, n (%)*740 177 (43.5)174 836 (45.3)
 Dyspepsia316 831112 737
 Gastroprotection288 36041 350
 Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease158 40533 480
 Peptic ulcer disease50 23914 453
Helicobacter pylori infection41 4302526
 Barrett’s oesophagus4180137
 Zollinger-Ellison syndrome245
Non-evidence based gastroprotection, n (%)363 992 (21.4)51 476 (13.3)
Off-label indication, n (%)*253 591 (14.9)72 431 (18.8)
 Stomach pain231 71564 188
 Gastritis or duodenitis35 90813 096
No recorded indication, n (%)342 077 (20.1)87 245 (22.6)
Reason for discontinuation†
 Switch to other class43 988 (2.6)124 648 (32.3)
 Treatment gap >30 days893 230 (52.5)122 928 (31.8)
 Administrative censoring762 619 (44.9)138 412 (35.9)
  • *Indication categories are not mutually exclusive.

  • †Median (IQR) duration of first treatment course for PPI users and H2RA users was 144 (59–870) days and 279 (61–1645) days, respectively.