Table 1

Demographics and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19

VariablesCondition on admissionOutcome
Moderate
(n=91)
Severe
(n=133)
Critical
(n=84)
P valueSurvivor
(n=170)
Non-survivor
(n=138)
P value
Age, years55.0 (39.0–67.0)66.0 (55.5–73.0)70.0 (63.3–78.8)<0.000157.0 (43.0–68.0)70.0 (62.8–78.0)<0.0001
Female, n (%)51/91 (56)67/133 (50)24/84 (29)0.000395/170 (56)47/138 (34)0.0001
Comorbidity, n (%)35/89 (39)82/132 (62)61/83 (74)<0.000172/167 (43)106/137 (77)<0.0001
 Hypertension18/89 (20)51/132 (39)41/83 (49)<0.000143/167 (26)67/137 (49)<0.0001
 Diabetes14/89 (16)22/132 (17)20/83 (24)0.162124/167 (14)32/137 (23)0.0443
 Cardiovascular disease5/89 (6)21/132 (16)15/83 (18)0.015813/167 (8)28/137 (20)0.0013
 Cerebrovascular disease2/89 (2)3/132 (2)7/83 (8)0.04024/167 (2)8/137 (6)0.2155
 Pulmonary disease6/89 (7)11/132 (8)9/83 (11)0.338010/167 (6)16/137 (12)0.0775
 Chronic kidney disease0/89 (0)3/132 (2)4/83 (5)0.03531/167 (1)6/137 (4)0.0715
Signs and symptoms, n (%)
 Fever76/90 (84)119/133 (90)77/84 (92)0.1318145/169 (86)127/138 (92)0.0875
 Cough54/90 (60)101/132 (77)71/84 (85)0.0002114/169 (68)112/137 (82)0.0047
Laboratory parameters
 Neutrophil count, ×109/L3.1 (2.5–4.1)4.0 (2.7–5.7)10.1 (7.2–14.7)<0.00013.3 (2.4–4.3)8.1 (4.9–12.5)<0.0001
 Lymphocyte count, ×109/L1.2 (0.9–1.6)0.9 (0.7–1.3)0.5 (0.4–0.8)<0.00011.1 (0.8–1.5)0.6 (0.4–0.8)<0.0001
 Platelet count, ×109/L213.0 (160.0–309.0)208.5 (149.0–261.3)156.0 (94.5–222.0)<0.0001220.0 (170.8–291.3)151.0 (107.0–222.5)<0.0001
 D-dimer, μg/mL0.4 (0.3–0.8)1.0 (0.5–2.6)18.1 (2.6–21.0)<0.00010.5 (0.3–1.0)7.9 (1.3–21.0)<0.0001
 ALT, U/L18.0 (13.0–24.0)23.0 (16.0–39.0)33.5 (21.0–55.8)<0.000120.0 (13.8–32.5)28.0 (18.0–46.5)<0.0001
 BUN, mmol/L3.7 (3.1–4.7)5.1 (3.7–6.7)9.6 (7.0–16.1)<0.00013.9 (3.1–5.2)8.8 (5.6–12.9)<0.0001
 Creatinine, μmol/L66.0 (57.0–81.0)72.0 (56.0–93.0)87.5 (70.5–120.0)<0.000165.5 (57.0–82.0)86.5 (66.8–120.0)<0.0001
 Total cholesterol, mmol/L3.8 (3.2–4.5)3.5 (3.1–3.9)3.2 (2.8–3.8)<0.00013.6 (3.2–4.3)3.3 (2.8–3.9)<0.0001
 Procalcitonin, ng/mL0.05 (0.04–0.09)0.09 (0.05–0.23)0.49 (0.17–1.49)<0.00010.05 (0.04–0.09)0.31 (0.14–1.09)<0.0001
 Lactic dehydrogenase, U/L229.0 (190.0–283.0)315.0 (219.5–431.8)637.0 (490.5–872.5)<0.0001243.0 (194.8–309.8)524.5 (366.0–721.0)<0.0001
 C reactive protein, mg/L7.7 (2.5–24.3)49.3 (8.9–93.3)112.3 (71.4–187.3)<0.000110.7 (2.4–36.7)100.5 (62.4–161.2)<0.0001
 Interleukin 1β ≥5 pg/mL, n (%)13/91 (14)17/133 (13)11/84 (13)0.812023/170 (14)18/138 (13)0.9006
 Interleukin 2 receptor, U/mL475.5 (375.8–630.8)799.0 (538.5–1097.0)1259.5 (942.3–1825.0)<0.0001553.0 (402.0–802.0)1137.5 (822.0–1584.3)<0.0001
  ≥710 U/L, n (%)19/91 (21)74/133 (56)77/84 (92)<0.000151/170 (30)113/138 (82)<0.0001
 Interleukin 6, pg/mL5.6 (2.7–15.3)24.3 (6.7–61.7)64.8 (29.42–153.1)<0.00017.9 (2.7–22.8)59.7 (23.6–137.4)<0.0001
  ≥7 pg/mL, n (%)41/91 (45)100/133 (75)77/83 (92)<0.000190/170 (53)132/137 (96)<0.0001
 Interleukin 8, pg/mL15.4 (7.7–29.4)19.5 (12–35.5)30.8 (21.0–71.8)<0.000116.3 (9.4–28.7)26.6 (16.4–60.40)<0.0001
  ≥62 pg/mL, n (%)10/91 (11)13/133 (10)77/84 (92)<0.000114/170 (8)33/138 (24)0.0001
 Interleukin 10, pg/mL5.0 (5.0–5.1)5.9 (5.0–10.80)10.9 (6.4–18.7)<0.00015.0 (5.0–6.7)10.1 (5.4–16.4)<0.0001
  ≥9.1 pg/mL, n (%)10/91 (11)46/133 (35)76/83 (92)<0.000131/170 (18)76/137 (56)<0.0001
 TNF, pg/mL7.7 (6.0–9.5)8.6 (6.9–11.9)11.2 (7.4–18.8)<0.00017.8 (6.1–9.7)10.9 (7.7–15.9)<0.0001
  ≥8.1 pg/mL, n (%)43/91 (47)80/133 (60)77/84 (92)<0.000182/170 (48)101/138 (73)<0.0001
Treatment, n (%)
 Mechanical ventilation4/91 (4)46/133 (35)79/84 (94)<0.00017/170 (4)122/138 (88)<0.0001
 Antibiotics treatment85/91 (93)128/133 (96)84–0/84 (100)0.0191160/170 (94)137/138 (99)0.0343
 Antiviral treatment90/90 (100)124/126 (98)62/79 (79)<0.0001167/167 (100)109/128 (85)<0.0001
 Corticosteroids48/90 (53)86/133 (65)74/84 (88)<0.000184/169 (50)124/138 (90)<0.0001
 Immunoglobulin31/91 (34)77–56/133 (58)47–37/84 (56)0.003169/170 (41)86/138 (62)0.0001
Duration of complaint, days8.0 (4.8–13.0)10.0 (7.0–13.5)11.0 (7.0–15.0)0.00078.0 (6.0–13.0)10.0 (7.0–15.0)0.0027
Hospitalisation, days16.0 (12.0–23.0)19.0 (12.0–24.0)8.0 (4.0–13.0)<0.000119.5 (14.0–24.0)10.0 (5.0–17.0)<0.0001
Duration of disease, days26.0 (20.0–31.0)29.0 (24.0–35.0)19.0 (15.0–29.0)<0.000129.0 (24.0–34.0)22.0 (15.8–30.0)<0.0001
Progression, n (%)8/45 (18)52/129 (40)
  • Data are median (IQR), mean (SD) or n (%).

  • P values were calculated by Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test, χ2 test, Fisher’s exact test or Yates’ continuity corrected χ2 test, as appropriate.

  • Duration of complaint: time from onset of symptom to hospital admission; duration of disease: time from onset of symptom to outcome; hospitalisation: time from hospital admission to outcome.

  • ALT, alanine aminotransferase; BUN, blood urea nitrogen; TNF, tumour necrosis factor.