Table 4

Characteristics of the included articles

Authors,
publication year
Programme nameStudy designQuality of life measurementSample size (N)
Age (median)
Sex (female%)
Main results
Mindfulness-based therapies
Carletto et al (2017)106Body-affective mindfulness (BAM)Longitudinal (T1=basal level/T2=post-treatment/T3=6 months later)Functional Assessment of Multiple Sclerosis (FAMS)N=45
44.1 years
71.1%
Increase in general score FAMS from T1 to T2 (p<0.001) and from T2 to T3 (p=1).
Besharat et al (2017)107Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR)Longitudinal (T1=pre-treatment/T2=post-treatment)Short Form Health Survey 36 (SF-36)N intervention/control=12/11
35 years
100%
Increase in general QoL score in the intervention group (p<0.05).
Blankespoor et al (2017)108Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction (MBSR)Longitudinal (T1=pre-treatment/T2=post-treatment)Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54 Instrument (MSQoL-54)N=25
52.6 years
84%
Increase PCS (p<0.001).
Simpson et al (2017)109Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction (MBSR)Longitudinal (T1=pre-treatment/T2=post-treatment/T3=3 months later)Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life Inventory (MSQLI)N=25
43.6 years
92%
Small and insignificant increase QoL from T1 to T2 (p=0.48) and insignificant increase from T2 to T3 (p=0.71).
Spitzer et al (2018)110Community-based group mindfulnessLongitudinal (T1=pre-treatment/T2=post-treatment/T3=8 weeks later)Short Form Health Survey 36 (SF-36)N=23
48.4 years
91.3%
Increase MCS from T1 to T2 (p=0.008).
Ghodspour et al (2018)111Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT)Longitudinal (T1=pre-treatment/T2=post-treatment)Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54 Instrument (MSQoL-54)N intervention/control=15/15
36 years
100%
Increase in health distress (p=0.032), mental well-being (p=0.001), role limitation due to emotional problems (p=0.005) and cognitive performance (p=0.04) subscales.
Cognitive behavioural
Case et al (2018)112Trial of healing light guided imagery (HLGI)Longitudinal (T1=pre-treatment/T2=post-treatment)Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54 Instrument (MSQoL-54)N intervention/control=9/8
49.1 years
Increase in PCS (p=0.01) and MCS (p<0.01) in the intervention group.
Blair et al (2017)113Dialectical Behaviour Group Therapy (TCD)Longitudinal (T1=pre-treatment/T2=post-treatment/T3=6 months later)Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54 Instrument (MSQoL-54)N intervention/control=10/10
40.4 years
90%
Increase in MSQoL-54 from T1 to T3 (p=0.01).
Calandri et al (2017)114Group-based cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT)Longitudinal (T1=pre-treatment/T2=6 month post-treatment/T3=1 year post-treatment)Short Form Health Survey 12 (SF-12)N intervention/control=54/31
38 years
61%
Increase in MCS T2 in the CBT group vs control (p=0.036).
Increase in MCS T3 in the CBT group vs control (p=0.049).
Graziano et al (2014)115Group-based cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT)Longitudinal (T1=pre-treatment/T2=post-treatment/T3=6 months later)Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54 Instrument (MSQoL-54)N intervention/control=41/41
42.3 years
66%
Increase in MSQoL-54 at T3 in the CBT group vs control group (p<0.05).
Kiropoulos et al (2016)116Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for depressive symptomsLongitudinal (T1=pre-treatment/T2=post-treatment/T3=20 weeks later)Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54 Instrument (MSQoL-54)N intervention/control=15/15
34.6 years
86.7%
Differences between control and CBT group MCS and PCS in T2 and T3 (p<0.001).
Chruzander et al (2016)117Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) focused on depressive symptomsLongitudinal (T1=basal level/T2=3 weeks post-treatment/T3=3 months post-treatment)Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29)
EuroQol 5-Dimensions (EQ-5D)
EuroQol Visual Analogue Scale (EQ-VAS)
N=15
38 years
80%
Improvement in QoL from MSIS-29 and EQ-5D in T2 and T3 (p<0.05).
Kikuchi et al (2019)118Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) on depressionLongitudinal (T1=pre-treatment/T2=mind-treatment/T3=post-treatment)Functional Assessment of Multiple Sclerosis (FAMS)N=7
46.1 years
71.4%
Positive but not significant increase in FAMS (p>0.05).
Pakenham et al (2018)119Resilience Training Programme (ACT)Longitudinal (T1=pre-treatment/T2=post-treatment/T3=3 months later)Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54 Instrument (MSQoL-54)N=37
39.4 years
73%
Increase in PCS (p<0.001) and MCS (p<0.006) from T1 to T2, maintained at T3, without significant changes.
Proctor et al (2018)120Telephone-supported acceptance and commitment bibliotherapy (ACT)Longitudinal (T1=pre-randomisation/T2=12 weeks after randomisation)EuroQol 5-Dimensions (EQ-5D)N intervention/control=14/13
45.8 years
78%
No significant increase in QoL (p=0.62).
Social and group support
Liu (2017)125Hope-Based Group Therapy (HBGT)Longitudinal (T1=pre-treatment/T2=post-treatment)Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29)N intervention/control=18/14
35.1 years
100%
Physical and psychological QoL increase in HBT group
(p<0.05).
Abolghasemi et al (2016)121Supportive–Expressive Therapy (SE)Longitudinal (T1=pre-treatment/T2=post-treatmentWHO Quality of Life questionnaire (WHOQoL-BREF)N intervention/control=16/16
31.8 years
41.7%
Increase QoL from T1 to T2 (p<0.001).
Jongen et al (2016)123Intensive social cognitive treatment (can do treatment) with participation of support partnersLongitudinal (T1=basal level/T2=12 months post-treatment)Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life Instrument (MSQoL-54)N=38

65.8%
PCS increase (p=0.032) and MCS (p=0.087) in the RR group.
Jongen et al (2014)122Intensive social cognitive wellness programme with participation of support partnersLongitudinal (T1=basal level/T2=1 months post-treatment/T3=3 months post-treatment T4=6 months post-treatmentMultiple Sclerosis Quality of Life Instrument (MSQoL-54)N=44
45.7 years
79.5%
MCS increase at T2, T3 and T4 and PCS at T4 (p<0.05).
Eliášová et al (2015)124Self-Help group (SH)Cross-sectional (T1=after the treatment)WHO Quality of Life questionnaire (WHOQoL-BREF)N intervention/control=46/35
42.2 years
59%
Increase in physical (p<0.001), psychological (p<0.001) and social relationships (p<0.001) in the SH group.
Symptom and self-management-based therapies
Mulligan et al (2016)126Fatigue self-management programme ‘Minimise Fatigue, Maximise Life: Creating Balance with Multiple Sclerosis (MFML)’Longitudinal (T1=1 month pre-treatment/T2=pre-treatment/T3=post-treatment).Short Form Health Survey 12 (SF-12)N=24
49.3 years
100%
Positive but not significant changes in SF-12 (p>0.05).
Thomas et al (2014)127Group-based fatigue management (FACETS)Longitudinal (T1=1 week before treatment/T2=1 month post-treatment/T3=4 month post-treatment/T4=12 month post-treatment)Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29)
Short Form Health Survey 36 (SF-36)
N intervention/control=84/80
48 years
73%
Changes in physical health MSIS-29 (p=0.046) and vitality SF-36 (p=0.03) at T4.
Ehde et al (2015)128Telephone-Delivered Self-Management (SM)Longitudinal (T1=before group randomisation/T2=post-treatment/T3=6 month post-treatment/T4=12 month post-treatment)Short Form Health Survey 8 (SF-8)N intervention/control=75/88
51 years
89.3%
MCS and PCS increase at T2, T3 and T4 (p<0.05).
Feicke et al (2014)129Education programme for self-management competencies (S.MS)Longitudinal (T1=1 basal level/T2=post-treatment/T3=6 month post-treatment)Hamburg quality of life questionnaire in multiple sclerosis (Sclerosis Quality)N intervention/control=31/33
41.9 years
87.1%
Stable positive changes in QoL (p=0.007).
Other psychological intervention
LeClaire et al (2018)130Group Positive PsychologyLongitudinal (T1=basal level/T2=post-treatment)Short Form Health Survey 36 (SF-36)N=11
53.5 years
100%
Increase in SF-36 vitality subscale score (p=0.016). Increase in mental health SF-36 subscale (p=0.098) that did not reach statistical significance.
  • HBT, hope-based group therapy; MCS, mental component score; PCS, physical component score; QoL, quality of life; RR, relapsing–remitting.