Table 3

Characteristics of included studies

Authors, publication yearStudy design (T1: /T2:…)Quality of life measurementSample size (N)
Age (median)
Sex (female%)
Main results
Years of diagnosis
Possa et al (2017)95Cross-sectionalMultiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54 Instrument (MSQoL-54)N=38
32.9 years
Decrease in MCS (38%) and PCS (19%) in the first year after diagnosis.
Calandri et al (2017)97Cross-sectionalShort Form Health Survey 12 (SF-12)N=102
35.8 years
Problem solving (β=0.28) and avoidance (β=0.25) was related to a higher MCS in the first 3 years of diagnosis.
Nourbakhsh et al (2016)98Longitudinal (T1=basal level/T2=3 months after diagnosis/T3=6 months after diagnosis/T4=12 months after diagnosis/T5=18 months after diagnosis/T6=24 months after diagnosis/T6=36 months after diagnosis)Short Form Health Survey 36 (SF-36)N=43
36 years
Baseline severity of fatigue and depression predicts PCS and cognitive function and fatigue MCS in the first 3 years of diagnosis.
MS progression
Kinkel et al (2015)100Longitudinal (T1=CIS diagnosis/T2=5 years after diagnosis/T3=10 years after diagnosis)Short Form Health Survey 36 (SF-36) Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life Inventory (MSQLI)N=127
34.1 years
A second clinic event consistent with CDMS, higher EDSS at the diagnosis and an earlier onset CDMS predicts a decrease in PCS.
Bueno et al (2014)101Cross-sectional (25–30 years after diagnosis)Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54 Instrument (MSQoL-54)N=61
54.9 years
Patient changing from benign (EDSS<3) to non-benign (EDSS>3) decreases PCS.
Years of MS duration
Baumstarck et al (2015)102Longitudinal (T1=basal level/T2=24 months later)Multiple Sclerosis International Quality of Life questionnaire (MusiQol) Short Form Health Survey 36 (SF-36)N=526
40.0 years
Low levels of QoL, higher MS duration and higher EDSS level at T1 predicted worse QoL at T2.
Tepavcevic et al (2014)103Longitudinal (T1=basal level/T2=3 years later/T3=6 years later)Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54 Instrument (MSQoL-54)N=93
41.5 years
Higher EDSS and depression at basal level predicted a decrease of QoL at T1 and T2.
Young et al (2017)105Longitudinal (T1=basal level/T2=7 years later/T3=10 years later)Assessment of Quality of life (AQoL)N=70
59.8 years
Higher pain predicts a decrease in QoL.
Chruzander et al (2014)104Longitudinal (T1=basal level/T2=10 years later)EuroQol 5-Dimensions (EQ-5D) EuroQol Visual Analogue Scale (EQ-VAS) Sickness Impact Profile (SIP)N=118
49 years
Cognitive impairment, depressive symptoms and EDSS predicted a decrease in QoL at T2.
Group age
Stern et al (2018)96Cross-sectionalMultiple Sclerosis Quality of Life Instrument (MSQoL-54)N=57
50 years
The youngest group (35–44) presents worst PCS vs the oldest (55–65).
Buhse et al (2014)99Cross-sectionalMultiple Sclerosis Quality of Life–54 (MSQoL-54)N=211
65.5 years
Risk of neurologic impair­ment, physical disability, depression and the comorbidity of thyroid disease was associated with decrease in PCS. Being widowed and employed was associated with increase in PCS.
  • CDMS, clinical defined multiple sclerosis; CIS, clinical isolated syndrome; EDSS, Expanded Disability Status Scale; MCS, Mental Composite Score; MS, multiple sclerosis; PCS, Physical Composite Score; QoL, quality of life.