Table 3

Methodological approach

Frequency%P value
Does the choir sing unison or polyphony?0.38
 Unison only630
 Occasional canons and simple polyphony1365
 Consistent polyphony15
Use of piano accompaniment during session?0.40
 Consistently during choir session1680
 Occasionally210
 Rarely00
 Never210
Use of music sheets during session?0.38
 Sheets (notes and text)15
 Sheets (text)1365
 Learning by ear210
 Mix420
Use of movement or dancing during session?0.37
 Never315
 Rarely715
 Occasionally735
 Consistently315
  • Data are presented as numbers (%), and p values calculated with Pearson χ2 test. All analyses were performed in SPSS V.25.0,