Table 1

Methodological quality of articles (n=106)

Inclusion criteriaDesignAttritionAttrition between groupsExclusion afterFollow-up periodOccasion of measurementSame pre–post measurementNormalisation of DV measurementControl techniquesConstruct definitionImputing missing data
YesNo or N/A*Pre-experimentalQuasi experimentalExperimentalYesNo or N/A*YesNo or N/A*YesNo or N/A*YesNo or N/A*OneTwo or moreYesNo
or N/A*
YesNo or N/A*YesNo or N/A*
  • *No or N/A=the item is not proceeded or does not appear.