Table 2

Means (CI) of behavioural, physical and biochemical parameters of the adult population

Means (CI) of behavioural risk factors of NCD
AttributesMean number of servings of fruits on average per dayMean number of servings of vegetables on average per dayMean number of servings of fruits and/or vegetables on average per dayMean physical activity in minutes of moderate- intensity activity (min/day)*
Age
 18–240.4 (0.4 to 0.5)2.3 (2.1 to 2.5)2.7 (2.5 to 2.9)213.3 (213.1 to 213.5)
 25–390.4 (0.3 to 0.4)2.4 (2.2 to 2.5)2.7 (2.6 to 2.9)272.2 (272.1 to 272.3)
 40–540.3 (0.3 to 0.3)2.2 (2.1 to 2.3)2.5 (2.3 to 2.6)291.8 (291.6 to 291.9)
 55–690.3 (0.2 to 0.3)2.1 (1.9 to 2.2)2.3 (2.1 to 2.5)187.7 (187.5 to 187.8)
Sex
 Male0.4 (0.3 to 0.4)2.2 (2.0 to 2.3)2.5 (2.3 to 2.7)354.6 (354.5 to 354.7)
 Female0.4 (0.3 to 0.4)2.4 (2.2 to 2.5)2.7 (2.6 to 2.8)144.8 (144.7 to 144.8)
Residence
 Urban0.5 (0.4 to 0.5)1.9 (1.8 to 2.1)2.4 (2.2 to 2.5)196.7 (196.6 to 196.8)
 Rural0.3 (0.3 to 0.4)2.4 (2.2 to 2.5)2.7 (2.5 to 2.8)262.7 (262.5 to 262.8)
 Overall0.4 (0.3 to 0.4)2.3 (2.2 to 2.4)2.6 (2.5 to 2.7)247.9 (247.8 to 248.0)
Economic status
 Poorest0.4 (0.4 to 0.4)2.1 (2.1 to 2.1)2.5 (2.4 to 2.5)258.0 (257.9 to 258.2)
 Poor0.3 (0.3 to 0.3)2.3 (2.2 to 2.3)2.6 (2.5 to 2.6)264.5 (264.4 to 254.7)
 Average0.4 (0.3 to 0.4)2.4 (2.4 to 2.4)2.8 (2.7 to 2.8)260.0 (259.9 to 260.1)
 Rich0.4 (0.3 to 0.4)2.1 (2.1 to 2.1)2.5 (2.4 to 2.5)221.5 (221.4 to 221.6)
 Richest0.5 (0.5 to 0.5)2.3 (2.3 to 2.3)2.7 (2.7 to 2.8)231.2 (231.1 to 231.3)
 Overall0.4 (0.3 to 0.4)2.3 (2.2 to 2.4)2.6 (2.5 to 2.7)247.9 (247.8 to 248.0)
Means (CI) of physical risk factors of NCD
AttributesBMI (kg/m²)WC (cm)SBP (mm Hg)DBP (mm Hg)
Age
 18–2421.6 (21.3 to 22.0)74.5 (73.7 to 75.3)113.7 (112.9 to 114.4)74.3 (73.7 to 74.9)
 25–3923.2 (23.0 to 23.4)79.4 (78.8 to 79.0)117.1 (116.7 to 117.6)78.5 (78.1 to 78.8)
 40–5423.0 (22.8 to 23.3)80.4 (79.7 to 81.0)125.0 (124.2 to 125.8)82.2 (81.6 to 82.7)
 55–6922.3 (21.8 to 22.7)80.4 (79.2 to 81.7)130.9 (129.6 to 132.3)81.3 (80.6 to 82.1)
Sex
 Male21.9 (21.7 to 22.0)79.1 (78.5 to 79.6)121.5 (120.9 to 122.0)77.9 (77.5 to 78.3)
 Female23.5 (23.2 to 23.7)78.2 (77.5 to 78.8)120.7 (120.2 to 121.3)80.8 (80.5 to 81.2)
Residence
 Urban23.6 (23.3 to 23.9)81.4 (80.7 to 82.1)122.6 (122.0 to 123.1)80.6 (80.2 to 81.0)
 Rural22.4 (22.2 to 22.6)77.8 (77.3 to 78.3)119.7 (119.1 to 120.2)78.4 (78.0 to 78.8)
 Overall22.7 (22.5 to 22.8)78.6 (78.2 to 79.1)121.1 (120.7 to 121.5)79.5 (79.2 to 79.7)
Economic status
 Poorest22.0 (21.9 to 22.0)77.0 (76.9 to 77.0)120.4 (119.4 to 121.3)79.2 (78.6 to 79.8)
 Poor22.5 (22.5 to 22.5)78.4 (78.3 to 78.4)120.4 (119.5 to 121.2)79.1 (78.5 to 79.7)
 Average22.5 (22.4 to 22.5)78.0 (78.0 to 78.0)120.8 (119.9 to 121.7)78.9 (78.3 to 79.5)
 Rich22.6 (22.5 to 22.6)78.6 (78.6 to 78.7)120.9 (120.1 to 121.7)79.3 (78.7 to 79.9)
 Richest23.6 (23.6 to 23.6)81.6 (81.5 to 81.6)123.0 (122.1 to 123.9)80.8 (80.3 to 81.4)
 Overall22.7 (22.5 to 22.8)78.6 (78.2 to 79.1)121.1 (120.7 to 121.5)79.5 (79.2 to 79.7)
Means (CI) of biochemical risk factors of NCD
AttributesFasting blood glucose (mmol/L)Total cholesterol (mmol/L)Salt intake (g/day)†
Age
 18–245.0 (5.0 to 5.1)4.2 (4.1 to 4.3)9.1 (8.9 to 9.3)
 25–395.3 (5.3 to 5.4)4.4 (4.3 to 4.4)9.0 (8.9 to 9.1)
 40–545.7 (5.6 to 5.8)4.6 (4.6 to 4.7)9.0 (8.9 to 9.1)
 55–695.6 (5.5 to 5.6)4.6 (4.5 to 4.8)8.9 (8.8 to 9.1)
Sex
 Male5.4 (5.3 to 5.5)4.4 (4.3 to 4.4)9.0 (8.9 to 9.2)
 Female5.4 (5.3 to 5.5)4.4 (4.3 to 4.4)9.0 (8.9 to 9.1)
Residence
 Urban5.8 (5.7 to 5.8)4.4 (4.4 to 4.5)8.9 (8.7 to 9.0)
 Rural5.3 (5.3 to 5.4)4.4 (4.3 to 4.4)9.0 (8.9 to 9.1)
 Overall5.4 (5.3 to 5.5)4.4 (4.4 to 4.5)9.0 (8.9 to 9.1)
Economic status
 Poorest5.4 (5.4 to 5.4)4.4 (4.3 to 4.4)9.0 (8.9 to 9.0)
 Poor5.4 (5.4 to 5.5)4.4 (4.4 to 4.4)9.1 (9.1 to 9.1)
 Average5.3 (5.3 to 5.4)4.4 (4.4 to 4.5)8.9 (8.8 to 8.9)
 Rich5.3 (5.2 to 5.3)4.4 (4.4 to 4.4)9.1 (9.0 to 9.1)
 Richest5.6 (5.5 to 5.6)4.5 (4.4 to 4.5)9.0 (9.0 to 9.0)
 Overall5.4 (5.3 to 5.5)4.4 (4.4 to 4.5)9.0 (8.9 to 9.1)
  • *Minutes spent on vigorous-intensity activities per day are multiplied by 2, to derive equivalent minutes of moderate-intensity activities and then summed up to obtain the total physical activity in minutes of moderate-intensity activity per day.

  • †Calculated using ‘Tanaka Equation’ (based on urinary Na+ concentration).

  • BMI, body mass index; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; min, minute; NCD, non-communicable diseases; SBP, systolic blood pressure; WC, waist circumference.