Table 3

COVID-19 primary stress items relationship with current drinking severity (ie, full AUDIT), depression and anxiety from prequarantine to quarantine.

Stress factorN
Total
Severity typeYes
M (SD)
N
Yes
N
M (SD)
N
No
MW
P value
MAN1
P value
MAN2
P value
95% CI
Essential worker1337Drinking4.42 (5.7)2432.85 (4.1)1099<0.0001*0.0005*0.0005*−1.8 to −057
Depression2.29 (1.8)2432.44 (1.9)10990.430.84
Anxiety1.79 (1.7)2431.94 (1.8)10990.420.8
Employment change1337Drinking3.46 (4.9)3243.02 (4.3)10180.380.080.144
Depression2.78 (2.0)3242.31 (1.9)10180.0043*0.007*−0.58 to −0.1
Anxiety2.03 (4.5)3241.88 (1.8)10180.320.363
Others ill1334Drinking3.59 (1.9)4992.87 (4.4)840<0.0001*0.10.125−1.2 to −0.2
Depression2.3 (1.8)4992.47 (1.9)8400.200.83
Anxiety1.9 (5.5)4991.93 (1.9)8400.990.94
Others severely ill1336Drinking4.49 (2.0)1272.99 (4.3)12140.001*0.007*0.01*−2 to −0.38
Depression2.45 (2.0)1272.4 (1.9)12140.990.41
Anxiety1.92 (5.8)1271.91 (1.8)12140.820.84
Isolated alone1325Drinking3.88 (2.0)1692.98 (4.2)11610.420.830.87
Depression3.4 (1.9)1692.41 (1.9)11610.009*0.04*−0.7 to −0.06
Anxiety2.04 (5.2)1691.9 (1.8)11610.430.11
Having children1334Drinking5.17 (1.8)2112.75 (4.2)1128<0.001*0.0003*<0.0001*−2.4 to −0.9
Depression1.5 (1.7)2112.58 (1.9)1128<0.0001*<0.0001*0.37 to 0.97
Anxiety1.37 (1.7)2112.02 (1.9)1128<0.0001*0.0009*0.25 to 0.85
Poor relationship1168Drinking2.82 (5.1)1873.1 (4.1)9850.01*0.920.870.4 to 1.0
Depression3.57 (2.0)1872.2 (1.8)985<0.0001*<0.0001*−1.53 to −1
Anxiety2.79 (2.0)1871.74 (1.8)985<0.0001*<0.0001*−1.3 to −073
Going outdoors1336Drinking3.42 (4.5)11481.37 (3.4)193<0.0001*<0.0001*<0.0001*1.14 to 2.47
Depression3.18 (2.0)1932.28 (1.9)1148<0.0001*<0.0001*−1 to −0.42
Anxiety2.42 (2.0)1931.83 (1.8)11480.0002*0.0008*−0.8 to −0.24
  • 95% confidence interval (CI) for most stringent statistically significant finding.

  • *p-value indicates statistical significance.

  • AUDIT, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test; M, mean; MAN1 p-value, MANCOVA p-value controlling for age and gender; MAN2 p-value, MANCOVA p-value controlling for age, gender, depression, and anxiety; MW p-value, Mann-Whitney U-Test p-value; SD, standard deviation.