Table 1

Characteristics of study population (n=249 420)

CharacteristicOlderMiddle-aged
WomenMenWomenMen
N55 86035 47084 46573 625
Age (years)73.21 (5.64)71.32 (4.40)54.52 (5.60)54.35 (5.64)
Active living environment
 1 (least favourable)26 170 (46.8)18 805 (53.0)43 625 (51.6)39 455 (53.6)
 215 285 (27.4)9015 (25.4)22 230 (26.3)18 630 (25.3)
 310 475 (18.8)5505 (15.5)13 415 (15.9)10 925 (14.8)
 42800 (5.0)1520 (4.3)3570 (4.2)2995 (4.1)
 5 (most favourable)1130 (2.0)625 (1.8)1625 (1.9)1620 (2.2)
Total follow-up time
(person-years)
299 061.96177 480.84522 885.69452 484.72
Median follow-up time (years)4.814.476.396.35
Smoking status
 Never23 970 (42.9)5 965 (16.8)25 065 (29.7)13 480 (18.3)
 Former25 120 (45.0)24 490 (69.0)38 515 (45.6)39 355 (53.5)
 Current6770 (12.1)5020 (14.2)20 885 (24.7)20 790 (28.2)
Obese14 890 (26.7)9115 (25.7)25 340 (30.0)22 535 (30.6)
2+ chronic conditions33 915 (60.7)18 500 (52.2)33 595 (39.8)22 990 (31.2)
Average median household income (DA-level)$62 848$66 816$68 437$69 504
 >1 SD below median9810 (17.6)4635 (13.1)10 220 (12.1)8420 (11.4)
 Within 1 SD from median41 755 (74.8)27 350 (77.1)63 980 (75.8)55 700 (75.7)
 <1 SD above median4295 (7.7)3485 (9.8)10 260 (12.2)9505 (12.9)
Educational attainment
 Less than secondary25 180 (45.1)14 530 (41.0)16 655 (19.7)15 725 (21.4)
 Secondary school11 725 (21.0)5930 (16.7)22 135 (26.2)16 460 (22.4)
 Degree/diploma18 955 (33.9)15 010 (42.3)45 675 (54.1)41 440 (56.3)
Premature deaths*
 Total (%)5250 (9.4)4050 (11.4)2395 (2.8)3040 (4.1)
 Cardiometabolic (%)1465 (2.6)1265 (3.6)385 (0.5)830 (1.1)
  • Data are n, n (%), mean (SD). All covariates are from survey response (baseline).

  • *Premature death was defined as death before the age of 85 years in older women, before 81 years in older men, and before 72 years in middle-aged women and men.

  • DA, dissemination area.