Table 2

Long-term intermittent hypoxia

First author, year of publicationParticipantsPopulation/countryHypoxiaSea level/hypoxia levelTimeOutcome
Gunga,42 199611 maleMiners/Chile (EG)3600–4000 m4/10 days5 years↑ CVP, ↓ Hct, ↓ EPO, ↑ PV, ↓ Hb, ↑ RT
5 maleMiners/Chile (CG)Sea levelSea level15 days=CVP, =HT, =EPO, =PV, =Hb, =RT
Richalet,32 200229 maleMiners/Chile3800–4600 m7/7 days31 months↑ MSAPD, ↑ MSAPN, ↑ RVD, ↓ SPAP, ↑ Hct
29 maleMiners/Chile (CG)Sea levelSea level31 months=MSAPD, =MSAPN, =RVD, =SPAP, ↑ Hct
Sarybaev,33 200310 maleMiners/Asia3700–4200 m4/4 weeks3 years↑ mPAP, =CO, =RVD, ↑ TPVR
21 maleMiners/Asia3700–4200 m4/4 weeks1 year=mPAP, =CO, =RVD, =TPVR
26 maleMiners/Asia3700–4200 m4 weeks/23–25 days53 days↑ mPAP, ↑ Card. output,=RVD, ↑ TPVR
Heinicke,41 200315 maleSoldier/Chile (CG)Sea levelSea level6 months=Hb mass, =red cell volume, =Hb, =EPO, =Hct, =PV, =BV
10 maleSoldier/Chile3550 m3/11 days6 months↑ Hb mass, ↑ red cell volume, ↑ Hb, ↑ EPO, ↑ Hct, ↓ PV, ↓ BV
9 maleOfficers/Chile3550 m3–5/3–5 days22 years↑ Hb mass,↑ red cell volume, ↑ Hb, ↑ EPO, ↑ Hct, ↓ PV, =BV
Farias,40 200625 maleMiners/Chile (EG)4500 m7/7 days2,5 years=HR, =SBP, =DBP
17 maleMiners/Chile (CG)Sea levelSea level2,5 years=HR, =SBP, =DBP
Brito,38 200750 maleArmy/Chile3550 m3/4 days12 years↑ mPAP, ↑RVT, ↑ NPTI, ↑ SBP, ↑DBP
Prommer,44 200715 maleSoldiers/Chile3550 m3/11 days6 months↑ Hb mass, ↑Hb, ↑ Hct, =BV, ↓ CO
15 maleSoldiers/Chile (CG)Sea levelSea level6 months↑ Hb mass, ↑Hb, ↑Hct, =BV, ↓CO
Vinnikov,34 2011234 maleMiners/Kyrgyzstan3800–4500 m14–21/14–21 days4 years↓ VC, ↓ FVC, ↓ FVC1
Vinnikov,45 2016472 maleMiners/Kyrgyzstan4000 m14/14 days1 years=SBP, =DBP, =BP
Lüneburg,43 201772 maleArmy draftees/Chile3550 m2/5 days3 months↑ ADMA, ↑ L-NMMA, ↑SDMA, ↑ SBP, =DBP, ↑ Hr, ↑ Hct, ↑ Hb
Bacaloni,37 201882 maleMiners/Chile4300 m4/4 days8 years=Hr DS, =Hr NS, =Hr RD, ↑Hb DS, ↑Hb NS, ↑ Hb RD, ↓ FEV1
119 maleMiners/Chile3600 m underground mine4/4 days8 years=Hr DS, =Hr NS, =Hr RD, ↑ Hb DS, ↑Hb NS, ↑ Hb RD, ↓ FEV1
59 maleMiners/Chile1500 m4/4 days8 years=Hr DS, =Hr NS, =Hr RD, =Hb DS, =Hb NS, =Hb RD, =FEV1
Akunov,36 2018266 maleWorkers/Canada3800–4000 m14/14 days21 years↑ Hb
Brito,39 2018120 maleMiners/Chile4200–4800 m7/7 days5 years↑ SBP, ↑ DBP, ↑ Hr, =Hct, =Hb, ↑ RVT, ↑ RVD, ↑ RAE, ↑ADMA, =SDMA, ↑ mPAP
Siques,35 2019123 maleArmy draftees/Chile3550 m2/5 days6 months↑ SBP, =DBP, ↑ HR, ↑ Hct, ↑ Hb, ↑ADMA, ↓ SDMA, ↑ mPAP
  • ↑, increase; ↓, decrease; =, no change.

  • ADMA, asymmetric dimethylarginine; BP, blood pressure; CG, control group; CO, cardiac output; CVP, central venous pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; DS, day shift; EG, experimental group; EPO, erythropoietin; FVC, forced vital capacity; FVC1, forced expiratory volume during the first second; Hb, haemoglobin; Hct, haematocrit; Hr, heart rate; L-NMMA, monomethyl-L-arginine; mPAP, mean pulmonary artery pressure; MSAPD, mean systemic arterial pressure daytime; MSAPN, mean systemic arterial pressure nighttime; NPTI, non-physiological tricuspid insufficiency presence; NS, night shift; PV, plasma volume; RAE, right atrium enlargement; RD, rest day; RT, reticulocytes; RVD, right ventricular dilatation; RVD, right ventricular dimension; RVT, right ventricle thickness; SBP, systolic blood pressure; SPAP, systolic pulmonary arterial pressure; TPVR, total pulmonary vascular resistance; VC, vital capacity.