Table 3

Risk of all cause death in 2016–2017 among opioid users and subgroups of patients, (n=31 998)

Patient categoryAnalysis group based on exposure category
NoneOpioid only (reference group)Benzodiazepine* onlyConcurrent
OR (P value)95% CIOR (P value)OR (P value)95% CIOR (P value)95% CI
Overall population0.67 (<0.001)0.64 to 0.7110.76 (<0.001)0.69 to 0.831.90 (<0.001)1.76 to 2.05
 Female0.64 (<0.001)0.60 to 0.7010.68 (<0.001)0.60 to 0.781.73 (<0.001)1.56 to 1.92
 Male0.70 (<0.001)0.62 to 0.7610.85 (0.02)0.75 to 0.972.09 (<0.001)1.87 to 2.33
Age at death
 18–451.20 (0.13)0.94 to 1.5411.98 (<0.001)1.38 to 2.862.26 (<0.001)1.63 to 3.13
 46–651.13 (0.03)1.01 to 1.2811.24 (0.03)1.02 to 1.512.20 (<0.001)1.90 to 2.55
 >650.56 (<0.001)0.52 to 0.6010.61 (<0.001)0.54 to 0.681.79 (<0.001)1.63 to 1.97
Total days of cumulative concurrency
 1–300.82 (0.007)0.71 to 0.9510.88 (0.17)0.74 to 1.054.93 (<0.001)4.29 to 5.66
 31–902.4 (<0.001)1.84 to 3.1511.18 (0.21)0.91 to 1.561.41 (<0.001)1.14 to 1.74
 91–1802.39 (<0.001)1.58 to 3.6011.74 (0.01)1.12 to 2.680.80 (0.20)0.56 to 1.12
 181–3654.27 (<0.001)2.58 to 7.0711.54 (0.08)0.94 to 2.510.92 (0.66)0.63 to 1.33
 >3651.53 (0.26)0.73 to 3.2411.17 (0.71)0.51 to 2.720.39 (0.003)0.21 to 0.72
Total days of opioid use
 1–70.14 (<0.001)0.11 to 0.1710.17 (<0.001)0.12 to 0.232.78 (<0.001)1.79 to 4.32
 8–300.38 (<0.001)0.34 to 0.4210.48 (<0.001)0.40 to 0.592.29 (<0.001)1.89 to 2.78
 31–901.03 (0.56)0.92 to 1.1611.46 (<0.001)1.19 to 1.782.58 (<0.001)2.22 to 3.00
 91–1802.08 (<0.001)1.75 to 2.4812.62 (<0.001)1.96 to 3.512.16 (<0.001)1.80 to 2.60
 181–3652.66 (<0.001)2.18 to 3.2413.13 (<0.001)2.24 to 4.381.83 (<0.001)1.50 to 2.23
 >3652.83 (<0.001)2.16 to 3.7112.41 (<0.001)1.51 to 3.871.20 (0.15)0.93 to 1.53
No of opioid dispensations
 1–100.41 (<0.001)0.38 to 0.4410.45 (<0.001)0.39 to 0.512.23 (<0.001)1.96 to 2.54
 11–301.36 (<0.001)1.20 to 1.5411.72 (<0.001)1.41 to 2.112.70 (<0.001)2.34 to 3.12
 >302.11 (<0.001)1.83 to 2.4411.82 (<0.001)1.46 to 2.281.40 (<0.001)1.21 to 1.62
No of unique prescribers
 10.31 (<0.001)0.27 to 0.3610.49 (<0.001)0.32 to 0.742.50 (<0.001)1.76 to 3.56
 20.51 (<0.001)0.44 to 0.5810.63 (<0.001)0.48 to 0.812.29 (<0.001)1.81 to 2.90
 30.60 (<0.001)0.52 to 0.6910.71 (0.004)0.56 to 0.902.03 (<0.001)1.64 to 2.52
 40.75 (<0.001)0.64 to 0.8710.82 (0.12)0.64 to 1.052.49 (<0.001)2.01 to 3.08
 >51.36 (<0.001)1.23 to 1.5011.10 (0.15)0.96 to 1.262.01 (<0.001)1.82 to 2.24
No of unique pharmacies
 10.54 (<0.001)0.50 to 0.6010.72 (<0.001)0.60 to 0.871.41 (<0.001)1.20 to 1.66
 20.65 (<0.001)0.59 to 0.7110.74 (<0.001)0.62 to 0.872.09 (<0.001)1.82 to 2.40
 30.73 (<0.001)0.64 to 0.8410.78 (0.018)0.63 to 0.962.48 (<0.001)2.09 to 2.93
 40.99 (0.96)0.81 to 1.2110.82 (0.18)0.61 to 1.102.20 (<0.001)1.76 to 2.76
 >51.30 (0.01)1.06 to 1.5911.14 (0.33)0.88 to 1.481.81 (<0.001)1.47 to 2.24
  • *Benzodiazepine receptor modulator (includes Z-drugs).

  • control interval, seven-day period one month before death; risk interval, seven days before death.