Table 2

Primary and secondary outcome measures

Outcome measureAssessmentsLanguage of administrationMeasurement variable
Primary: lexical accessNaming probes*Spanish and English% accuracy (ES and PC)
Secondary: lexical accessBoston Naming Test (BNT)36 37Spanish and English% accuracy
Category generation task38Spanish and EnglishNumber of words produced
% accuracy
Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT)39 40Spanish and EnglishNumber of words produced
% accuracy
Secondary: non-verbal semantic knowledgePyramid and Palm Trees(PAPT): picture modality41Preferred language% accuracy
Secondary: lexical-semantic processingPsycholinguistic Assessments of Language Processing in Aphasia (PALPA)42 43†: subtests of spoken and written word–picture matching, auditory and written synonym judgments and word semantic associationSpanish and English% accuracy
Secondary: readingPsycholinguistic Assessments of Language Processing in Aphasia (PALPA)42 43†: subtests of letter-length readingc41 42Spanish and English% accuracy
Secondary: aphasia severityWestern Aphasia Battery–Revised (WAB-R)44 45Spanish and EnglishWAB-AQ Score
Secondary: production and comprehensionBilingual Aphasia Test (BAT–B)46Spanish and English% accuracy
Secondary: translationBilingual Aphasia Test: (BAT–C)46Spanish and English% accuracy
Secondary: discourseAphasia bank47Spanish and EnglishCIU per minute
Secondary: perception of patient’s communication abilitiesCommunicative Effectiveness Index (CETI)48Preferred languageTotal score
Secondary: executive functionCognitive Linguistic Quick Test (CLQT)49Preferred language% accuracy
  • *Naming probes designed for each patient including treated and untreated items.

  • †Standardised tests of language and/ or cognition.

  • CIU, content information units; ES, effect size; PC, percentage change.