Table 1

Clinical and demographic characteristics of the respondents separated by diabetes type and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level

VariableType 1 diabetesType 2 diabetes
AllHbA1c <52 mmol/molHbA1c 52–69 mmol/molHbA1c ≥70 mmol/molStandardised mean difference, SMDAllHbA1c <52 mmol/molHbA1c 52–69 mmol/molHbA1c ≥70 mmol/molStandardised mean difference, SMD
Number (%)1373284 (20.7%)781 (56.9%)308 (22.4%)1353725 (53.6%)503 (37.2%)125(9.2%)
Men, n (%)690 (50.3)152 (53.5)391 (50.1)147 (47.7)0.077822 (60.8)444 (61.2)302 (60.0)76 (60.8)0.016
Age, years (SD)48.6 (16.4)46.9 (17.0)49.6 (16.1)47.8 (16.3)0.11366.6 (9.1)66.5 (9.1)66.9 (9.0)65.5 (9.7)0.103
Diabetes duration, years (IQR)22.0 (12.0–36.0)19.0 (7.0–32.0)23.0 (13.0–37.0)24.0 (13.0–37.0)0.1508.0 (4.0–14.0)6.0 (3.0–11.0)10.0 (6.0–16.0)13.0 (6.0–17.0)0.443
HbA1c mmol/mol (SD)62 (12.7)53 (12.5)
BMI, kg/m2 (SD)26.0 (4.2)25.2 (3.8)26.0 (4.2)26.7 (4.6)0.23929.9 (5.3)29.3 (5.2)30.3 (5.4)32.0 (5.5)0.332
Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg (SD)127.0 (14.0)124.8 (14.0)127.5 (13.8)127.8 (14.2)0.145134.3 (14.3)134.0 (14.4)134.5 (13.7)135.1 (16.5)0.046
Antihypertensive medication, n (%)589 (44.7)99 (36.9)341 (45.3)149 (50.2)0.1791070 (80.1)572 (79.6)404 (81.9)94 (76.4)0.091
LDL-cholesterol, mmol/L (SD)2.4 (0.8)2.5 (0.8)2.4 (0.8)2.5 (0.8)0.0772.5 (0.9)2.5 (0.9)2.4 (0.9)2.5 (1.0)0.026
Lipid-lowering medication, n (%)642 (48.4)94 (34.6)378 (49.8)170 (57.6)0.315900 (68.1)472 (66.6)344 (70.1)84 (69.4)0.050
Micro-albuminuria, n (%)132 (10.3)12 (4.6)70 (9.5)50 (17.6)0.285194 (18.0)80 (13.9)83 (20.1)31 (34.1)0.323
Macro-albuminuria, n (%)31 (2.6)5 (2.1)12 (1.8)14 (5.2)0.12652 (5.0)27 (4.8)20 (5.1)5 (6.1)0.037
Estimated glomerular filtration rate, mL/min (SD)90.0 (23.5)90.6 (20.7)89.1 (22.6)91.6 (27.7)0.07182.3 (23.5)82.5 (22.3)81.9 (24.0)83.4 (27.9)0.038
Retinopathy, n (%)875 (65.9)137 (50.6)520 (68.2)218 (74.1)0.333327 (29.4)128 (21.7)153 (36.3)46 (47.0)0.366
Coronary heart disease, n (%)83 (6.3)9 (3.3)53 (7.0)21 (7.1)0.113279 (22.4)136 (20.2)111 (24.0)32 (28.6)0.130
Stroke, n (%)48 (3.6)5 (1.9)32 (4.2)11 (3.7)0.09396 (7.8)48 (7.2)40 (8.9)8 (7.1)0.043
Smoker, n (%)135 (10.1)14 (5.1)78 (10.2)43 (14.4)0.214162 (12.9)79 (11.7)58 (12.3)25 (23.1)0.203
Physical activity, daily, n (%)359 (27.6)90 (33.5)203 (27.2)66 (23.2)0.334426 (34.9)251 (38.7)157 (33.9)18 (16.7)0.410
Diabetes treatment0.1360.813
Diet alone, n (%)195 (14.4)172 (23.7)19 (3.8)4 (3.3)
Oral hypoglycaemic agent alone, n (%)718 (53.1)419 (57.8)261 (52.0)38 (30.9)
Insulin alone, n (%)1335 (97.2)271 (95.4)764 (97.8)300 (97.4)130 (9.6)46 (6.3)63 (12.5)21 (17.1)
Insulin and oral agent, n (%)32 (2.3)9 (3.2)15 (1.9)8 (2.6)266 (19.7)76 (10.5)140 (27.9)50 (40.7)
Insulin pump users, n (%)356 (26.2)66 (23.8)221 (28.5)69 (22.5)0.0912 (0.5)1 (0.9)1 (0.5)0 (0.0)0.093
  • BMI, body mass index; LDL, low-density lipoprotein.