Table 1

Patient demographics, comorbidities and symptoms, by ICU status and survival

CharacteristicAll sample
(n=429)
Not-ICU
(n=347)
ICU
(n=82)
P valueAlive
(n=292)
Dead
(n=137)
P value
Age years, mean (SD)70 (18)71 (18)65 (17)0.00265 (19)80 (10)<0.001
Gender
 Male, n (%)242 (56.4%)184 (53%)58 (70.7%)0.004163 (55.8%)79 (57.7%)0.72
 Female, n (%)187 (43.6%)163 (47%)24 (29.3%)129 (44.2%)58 (42.3%)
Ethnicity (n=407)
 White, n (%)295 (72.5%)240 (73.6%)55 (67.9%)0.30193 (71.2%)102 (75.0%)0.42
 Non-white, n (%)112 (27.5%)86 (26.3%)26 (32.1%)78 (28.8%)34 (25.0%)
BMI (kg/m2), mean (SD)28.16 (7.85)27.91 (7.97)29.26 (7.28)0.1828.66 (8.69)27.15 (5.68)0.052
Comorbidities (n=313–329)
 Other relevant risk factors, n (%)179 (56.6%)138 (55.0%)41 (63.1%)0.24117 (54.9%)62 (60.2%)0.37
 Cardiac disease, n (%)103 (31.3%)85 (32.6%)18 (26.5%)0.3349 (22.3%)54 (49.5%)<0.001
 Dementia, n (%)57 (17.5%)51 (19.8%)6 (8.8%)0.04720 (9.2%)37 (33.9%)<0.001
 Diabetes without complications, n (%)52 (16.2%)42 (16.5%)10 (15.4%)0.8337 (17.3%)15 (14.2%)0.47
 Pulmonary disease—not asthma, n (%)48 (14.8%)40 (15.6%)8 (11.8%)0.4328 (13.0%)20 (18.2%)0.21
 Chronic kidney disease, n (%)45 (13.9%)41 (16.0%)4 (6.0%)0.04526 (11.9%)19 (17.9%)0.14
 Asthma, n (%)42 (12.8%)29 (11.1%)13 (19.1%)0.0729 (13.2%)13 (11.8%)0.71
 Rheumatologic disorder, n (%)42 (12.9%)36 (14.0%)6 (8.8%)0.3129 (13.2%)13 (12.1%)0.78
 Neurological disorder, n (%)39 (12.1%)34 (13.4%)5 (7.4%)0.2126 (12.1%)13 (12.1%)0.98
 Malignancy, n (%)33 (10.3%)27 (10.7%)6 (8.8%)0.8218 (8.4%)15 (14.2%)0.10
 Diabetes—with complications, n (%)29 (9.1%)23 (9.1%)6 (9.2%)0.9714 (6.6%)15 (14.3%)0.025
 Immunosuppressants, n (%)21 (6.7%)19 (7.7%)2 (3.0%)0.2615 (7.2%)6 (5.7%)0.81
 Haematologic disease, n (%)7 (2.2%)5 (2.0%)2 (2.9%)0.644 (1.9%)3 (2.8%)0.69
 Mod-severe liver disease, n (%)1 (0.3%)1 (0.4%)0 (0%)--1 (0.5%)0 (0%)--
 Mild liver disease, n (%)3 (0.9%)3 (1.2%)0 (0%)--3 (1.4%)0 (0%)--
 AIDS/HIV, n (%)2 (0.6%)0 (0%)2 (3.0%)--0 (0%)2 (1.9%)--
Symptoms (n=210–329)
 Dyspnoea, n (%)243 (73.9%)180 (69.8%)63 (88.7%)0.001158 (72.1%)85 (77.3%)0.31
 Cough, n (%)222 (72.5%)161 (67.4%)61 (91.0%)<0.001156 (76.1%)66 (65.3%)0.048
 History of fever, n (%)205 (67.4%)160 (66.7%)45 (70.3%)0.58149 (71.6%)56 (58.3%)0.021
 Fatigue, n (%)114 (41.3%)86 (40.4%)28 (44.4%)0.5679 (43.2%)35 (37.6%)0.37
 Altered consciousness confusion, n (%)75 (26.2%)67 (30.2%)8 (12.5%)0.00536 (18.8%)39 (41.5%)<0.001
 Vomiting/nausea, n (%)56 (20.1%)47 (21.8%)9 (14.3%)0.1943 (23.1%)13 (14.0%)0.07
 Myalgia, n (%)41 (15.6%)34 (16.7%)7 (12.1%)0.3935 (20%)6 (6.9%)0.006
 Chest pain, n (%)36 (13.5%)25 (12.1%)11 (18.0%)0.2330 (16.9%)6 (6.7%)0.023
 Diarrhoea, n (%)32 (11.5%)21 (9.7%)11 (17.7%)0.0725 (13.4%)7 (7.6%)0.17
 Sore throat, n (%)27 (10.5%)21 (10.3%)6 (10.9%)0.9024 (12.8%)3 (3.5%)0.009
 Abdominal pain, n (%)30 (10.8%)24 (11.2%)6 (9.4%)0.8224 (8.2%)6 (6.5%)0.15
 Dehydration, n (%)22 (10.5%)21 (11.6%)1 (3.4%)0.326 (4.2%)16 (24.2%)<0.001
 Headache, n (%)15 (5.7%)12 (5.9%)3 (5.1%)0.9913 (7.4%)2 (2.3%)0.16
 Skin ulcers, n (%)11 (4%)11 (5.2%)0 (0%)--3 (1.6%)8 (8.9%)0.007
 Arthralgia, n (%)10 (3.8%)7 (3.5%)3 (5.1%)0.6910 (5.8%)0 (0%)--
 Seizures, n (%)3 (1.1%)2 (0.9%)1 (1.6%)0.533 (1.6%)0 (0%)--
 Skin rash, n (%)2 (0.7%)2 (0.9%)0 (0%)--1 (0.5%)1 (1.1%)0.55
 Rhinorrhoea, n (%)1 (0.4%)1 (0.5%)0 (0%)--1 (0.6%)0 (0%)--
  • BMI, body mass index; ICU, intensive care unit; n, sample size.