Table 2

Factors associated with limited health literacy (n=427)

VariablesAdequate HLLimited HLP valueaOR95% CIP value
n (%)n (%)(univariate)(multivariate)
Age (mean±SD)57.17±10.3958.63±10.720.179‡1.000.97–1.020.757
Gender
 Male59 (39.9)110 (39.4)0.930
 Female89 (60.1)169 (60.6)
Ethnicity
 Malay72 (49.7)113 (40.9)0.040§0.820.45–1.490.506
 Chinese23 (15.9)73 (26.4)1.080.50–2.340.837
 Indian50 (34.5)90 (32.6)Reference
Marital status
 Single/divorced/separated/widowed33 (22.4)66 (23.7)0.779
 Married114 (77.6)213 (76.3)
Highest education
 Primary school29 (19.6)103 (37.2)<0.001§1.910.68–5.350.217
 Junior high school33 (22.3)93 (33.6)2.000.83–4.840.124
 High school53 (35.8)60 (21.7)1.410.64–3.070.394
 University/Masters/PhD33 (22.3)21 (7.6)Reference
Employment status
 Yes59 (40.4)92 (33.3)0.088‡0.850.43–1.710.652
 No, never worked33 (22.6)90 (32.6)1.160.60–2.220.66
 No, stopped working or retired54 (37.0)94 (34.1)Reference
Monthly income
 Less than RM100070 (47.3)173 (62)0.003‡0.770.41–1.430.401
 Equal to or more than RM100078 (52.7)106 (38)Reference
Health Insurance
 No103 (70.1)226 (81.6)0.007§1.340.75–2.400.319
 Yes44 (29.9)51 (18.4)Reference
English fluency
 Not fluent69 (46.6)205 (73.5)<0.001§2.361.30–4.300.005§
 Fluent79 (53.4)74 (26.5)Reference
Bahasa Malaysia fluency
 Not fluent21 (14.2)66 (23.7)0.021§1.300.60–2.830.51
 Fluent127 (85.8)213 (76.3)Reference
 Diabetes duration (years)5.60±3.145.75±3.650.686
Attended diabetes education session(s)
 Yes91 (61.5)108 (38.7)<0.001§0.420.27–0.68<0.001§
 No57 (38.5)171 (61.3)Reference
 Perceived Social Support (MSPSS Score) (mean±SD)5.58±0.935.05±0.86<0.001*0.520.40–0.69<0.001§
Glycaemic control*
 Have not achieved target97 (65.5)197 (70.6)0.282
 Achieved target51 (34.5)82 (29.4)
Blood pressure control†
 Have not achieved target49 (33.1)81 (29)0.384
 Achieved target99 (66.9)198 (71)
 Diabetes knowledge test (MDKT Score) (mean±SD)8.06±2.117.51±2.390.019§0.990.89–1.100.819
  • *HbA1c ≤ 6.5% or FBS ≤ 7.0.

  • †Blood pressure ≤ 135/75 mm Hg.

  • ‡p<0.25.

  • §p<0.05.

  • aOR, adjusted OR; HbA1c, haemoglobin A1c; MDKT, michigan diabetes knowledge test; MSPSS, multidimensional scale of perceived social support.