Table 1

Participants’ characteristics

CharacteristicsN (%)Mean±SD
Age (years)58.1±10.6
GenderFemale258 (60.3)
EthnicityMalay185 (43.8)
Chinese96 (22.7)
Indian141 (33.4)
Marital statusSingle/divorced/separated/widowed99 (23.2)
Married328 (76.8)
Highest educational attainmentPrimary school133 (31.2)
Junior high school126 (29.6)
High school113 (26.5)
University/masters/PhD54 (12.7)
Employment statusYes152 (35.9)
No, never worked123 (29.1)
No, stop working or retired148 (35.0)
Monthly incomeLess than minimum wage243 (56.8)
Health insurance ownershipNo330 (77.6)
English fluencyNot fluent275 (64.3)
Bahasa Malaysia fluencyNot fluent87 (20.3)
Diabetes duration (years)5.70±3.48
Attended diabetes education session(s)Yes199 (46.5)
Perceived social support (MSPSS Score)5.23±0.92
Glycaemic controlHave not achieved target295 (68.9)
Blood pressure controlHave not achieved target130 (30.4)
Diabetes knowledge test (MDKT Score)7.70±2.31
  • MDKT, michigan diabetes knowledge test; MSPSS, multidimensional scale of perceived social support.