Table 2

Clinical, laboratory and diagnosis imaging characteristics of patients with COVID-19 who have been admitted in ICU

ICU patients cohort (n=81)<65-year-old patients (n=575)
Admitted to ICU (n=50)Non-admitted to ICU (n=525)P value
Age*62 (51–71) (N=81)54 (48–60) (N=50)53 (45–59) (N=525)0.625
Male†60/81 (74.1)21/50 (42.0)325/525 (61.9)0.048
Migrant†25/81 (30.9)21/50 (42.0)238/525 (45.3)0.651
Influenza vaccine 19/20†12/42 (28.6)5/28 (17.9)75/395 (19.0)0.883
Clinical background
 Cardiovascular disease†17/81 (21.0)6/50 (12.0)29/523 (5.5)0.069
 High blood pressure†43/81 (53.1)23/50 (46.0)147/524 (28.1)0.008
 Diabetes mellitus†23/81 (28.4)10/50 (20.0)65/519 (12.5)0.315
 Tobacco smoker/ex-smoker†23/76 (30.3)13/49 (26.5)98/450 (21.8)0.447
 Obesity†23/81 (28.4)17/50 (34.0)80/520 (15.4)0.001
 COPD†7/81 (8.6)4/50 (8.0)30/521 (5.8)0.522
 Asthma†5/81 (6.2)4/50 (8.0)43/522 (8.2)0.117
 OSAS†8/39 (20.5)8/27 (29.6)22/332 (6.6)<0.001
 Thromboembolic disease†2/40 (5.0)2/28 (7.1)8/338 (2.4)0.136
 Neurological disease†5/80 (6.3)2/49 (4.1)31/521 (6.0)0.786
 Chronic kidney disease†5/81 (6.2)3/50 (6.0)12/522 (2.3)0.118
 Liver cirrhosis†1/80 (1.3)1/50 (2.0)11/522 (2.1)0.117
 Haematological/oncological cancer†4/81 (4.9)1/50 (2.0)19/523 (3.6)0.548
 HIV†0/81 (0.0)0/50 (0.0)7/522 (1.3)0.529
Clinical and laboratory presentation
 Heart rate (beats per minute)*94 (83–107) (N=73)54 (48–60) (N=50)53 (45–59) (N=525)0.625
 Respiratory rate (breaths per minute)*23 (18–30) (N=44)24 (18–30) (N=33)18 (16–20) (N=222)0.002
 Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)*133 (119–142) (N=66)128 (118–141) (N=42)125 (114–137) (N=292)0.591
 SpO2 (%)*88 (76–93) (N=69)88 (66–94) (N=44)96 (92–97) (N=454)<0.001
 SpO2 <90%†39/81 (48.1)26/50 (52.0)53/525 (10.1)<0.001
 SpO2 after oxygen administration (%)*95 (90–97) (N=39)95 (90–98) (N=27)96 (94–98) (N=91)0.813
 SpO2 <90% after oxygen administration†9/81 (11.1)5/50 (10.0)0/525 (0.0)<0.001
 Haemoglobin (g/L)*13.9 (11.9–15.0) (N=81)14.1 (12.1–15.2) (N=50)14.1 (13.1–15.1) (N=493)0.946
 Neutrophils (cells count/µL)*6300 (4500–9300) (N=81)7000 (4600–8800) (N=50)4700 (3500–6700) (N=495)0.001
 Lymphocytes (cells count/µL)*900 (600–1200) (N=81)900 (700–1300) (N=50)1100 (800–1400) (N=495)0.252
 Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio*6.64 (5.0–12.7) (N=81)6.69 (4.8–12.3) (N=50)4.4 (2.9–7.1) (N=495)<0.001
 Platelets (×109/L)*209 (170–267) (N=81)205 (172–265) (N=50)213 (171–274) (N=495)0.777
 INR*1.1 (1.0–1.2) (N=81)1.1 (1.0–1.2) (N=50)1.1 (1.0–1.1) (N=484)0.035
 D-dimer (mg/L)*940 (485–2095) (N=56)790 (470–2350) (N=35)640 (400–1080) (N=334)0.163
 LDH (U/L)*408 (279–542) (N=70)415 (279–605) (N=43)271 (215–348) (N=430)<0.001
 ALT (U/L)*45 (32–67) (N=80)50 (34–80) (N=50)44 (30–66) (N=494)0.075
 AST (U/L)*59 (40–82) (N=79)60 (43–85) (N=50)40 (29–57) (N=485)<0.001
 Creatinine (mg/dL)*1.1 (0.9–1.3) (N=78)1.1 (1.0–1.3) (N=48)0.9 (0.7–1.1) (N=480)<0.001
 C reactive protein (mg/L)*1157 (481–2054) (N=80)1234 (678–2133) (N=49)522 (174–1152) (N=494)<0.001
Diagnosis imaging
 Bilateral pulmonary infiltrates†61/74 (82.4)40/46 (87.0)388/476 (81.5)0.359
 Interstitial pulmonary infiltrates†61/81 (75.3)38/50 (76.0)360/525 (68.6)0.277
 Alveolar pulmonary infiltrates†51/81 (63.0)33/50 (66.0)230/525 (43.8)0.003
Respiratory supplementation
 Oxygen therapy†77/81 (95.1)47/50 (94.0)345/516 (66.9)<0.001
 Non-invasive ventilation†38/80 (47.5)26/49 (53.1)25/513 (4.9)<0.001
 Invasive ventilation†67/81 (82.7)43/50 (86.0)0/514 (0.0)<0.001
  • Comparison between patients under 65 years of age admitted to ICU versus non-admitted to ICU.

  • *Continuous variable (median, IQR, N)

  • †Categorical variables (n/N, %)

  • ALT, alanine aminotransferase; AST, aspartate transaminase; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; ICU, intensive care unit; INR, international normalised ratio; LDH, lactate dehydrogenase; OSAS, obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome; SpO2, partial oxygen saturation.