Table 1

Clinical characteristics and treatment (N=1549)

Overall<65 years old≥65 years oldP value
n/N (%)n/N (%)n/N (%)
Male890/1549 (57.5)400/642 (62.3)490/907 (54.0)0.001
Migrant385/1549 (24.8)296/642 (46.1)89/642 (13.9)<0.001
Clinical background
 Influenza vaccine 19/20498/1101 (45.2)90/463 (19.4)408/638 (63.9)<0.001
 Cardiological disease375/1545 (24.3)37/640 (5.8)338/905 (37.3)<0.001
 High blood pressure851/1548 (55.0)185/641 (28.9)666/907 (73.4)<0.001
 Diabetes mellitus382/1541 (24.8)85/636 (13.4)297/905 (32.8)<0.001
 Tobacco smoker/ex-smoker374/1344 (27.8)121/555 (21.8)253/789 (32.0)<0.001
 Obesity240/1531 (15.7)110/636 (17.3)130/895 (14.5)0.129
 COPD211/1541 (13.7)37/638 (5.8)174/903 (19.3)<0.001
 Asthma122/1545 (7.9)51/639 (8.0)71/906 (7.8)0.668
 OSAS79/935 (8.4)32/401 (8.0)47/534 (8.8)0.654
 Cerebrovascular disease57/125 (45.6)12/28 (42.7)45/97 (46.4)0.741
 Thromboembolic disease41/939 (4.4)10/410 (2.4)31/529 (5.9)0.011
 Neurological disease178/1540 (11.6)37/637 (5.8)141/903 (15.6)<0.001
 Chronic kidney disease104/1543 (6.7)16/639 (2.5)88/904 (9.7)<0.001
 Cirrhosis28/1540 (1.8)13/638 (2.0)15/902 (1.7)0.209
 Haematological/oncological cancer103/1540 (6.7)21/640 (3.3)82/900 (9.1)<0.001
 HIV9/1542 (0.6)7/639 (1.1)2/903 (0.2)0.012
 Autoimmune disease47/913 (5.1)17/393 (4.3)30/520 (5.8)0.328
Symptoms
 Fever1159/1540 (75.3)533/638 (83.5)626/902 (69.4)<0.001
 Headache133/1533 (8.7)92/634 (14.5)41/899 (4.6)<0.001
 Malaise671/1533 (43.8)282/637 (44.3)389/896 (43.3)0.928
 Confused87/1532 (5.7)11/633 (1.7)76/899 (8.4)<0.001
 Dyspnoea891/1533 (58.1)362/632 (57.3)529/901 (58.7)0.382
 Superior respiratory tract symptoms316/1534 (20.6)153/635 (24.1)163/899 (18.1)0.009
 Cough1010/1538 (65.7)469/638 (73.5)541/900 (60.1)<0.001
 Expectoration194/1535 (12.6)69/635 (10.9)125/900 (13.9)0.167
 Haemoptysis26/1532 (1.7)15/633 (2.3)11/899 (1.2)0.207
 Chest pain134/1534 (8.7)79/635 (12.4)55/899 (6.1)<0.001
 Muscle pain291/1534 (19.0)166/635 (26.1)125/899 (13.9)<0.001
 Abdominal pain49/1534 (3.19)16/635 (2.52)33/899 (3.67)0.280
 Nausea/vomiting178/1532 (11.6)88/636 (13.8)90/896 (10.0)0.040
 Diarrhoea269/1530 (17.6)143/636 (22.5)126/894 (14.1)<0.001
 Skin rash8/1531 (0.5)5/636 (0.8)3/895 (0.3)0.087
 Anosmia41/1153 (3.6)29/489 (5.9)12/664 (1.8)<0.001
Complications during admission
 Bacterial pneumonia43/1362 (3.2)13/551 (2.4)30/811 (3.7)0.320
 Sepsis28/1372 (2.0)16/554 (2.9)12/818 (1.5)0.054
 Respiratory distress syndrome195/1368 (14.2)74/550 (13.4)121/818 (14.8)0.557
 Pneumothorax5/1373 (0.4)3/556 (0.5)2/817 (0.2)0.488
 Pleural effusion29/1367 (2.1)6/552 (1.1)23/815 (2.8)0.032
 Stroke11/1373 (0.8)4/555 (0.7)7/818 (0.9)0.669
 Disseminated intravascular coagulation9/1369 (0.7)2/554 (0.4)7/815 (0.9)0.360
 Thrombosis55/824 (6.7)23/338 (6.8)32/486 (6.6)0.833
 Acute renal failure165/1373 (12.0)37/556 (6.6)128/817 (15.7)<0.001
Treatment
 HCQ monotherapy28/1549 (1.8)7/642 (1.1)21/907 (2.3)0.075
 HCQ+AZ927/1549 (59.8)448/642 (69.8)479/907 (52.8)<0.001
 HCQ+LP/r98/1549 (6.3)32/642 (5.0)66/907 (7.3)<0.001
 HCQ+AZ+LP/r287/1549 (18.5)90/642 (14.0)197/907 (21.7)<0.001
 HCQ+LP/r+IFN-b37/1549 (2.4)12/642 (1.9)25/907 (2.8)0.260
 HCQ+AZ+LP/r+IFN-b113/1549 (7.3)37/642 (5.8)76/907 (8.4)0.051
 Tocilizumab240/1549 (15.5)144/642 (22.4)96/907 (10.6)<0.001
 Corticosteroids684/1549 (44.2)264/642 (41.1)420/907 (46.3)<0.001
  • AZ, azithromicine; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; HCQ, hydroxicloroquine; IFN-b, interferon-beta; LP/r, lopinavir-ritonavir; OSAS, obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome.