Table 3

Clinical, laboratory and diagnosis imaging characteristics of patients with COVID-19 who died or recovered

Death (n=296)Recovered (n=1097)P value
Age*82 (71.5–87) (N=246)65 (53–78) (N=1097)<0.001
Male†208/296 (70.3)593/1097 (54.1)<0.001
Migrant†41/296 (13.8)296/1097 (27.0)<0.001
Clinical background
 Influenza vaccine 19/20†113/183 (61.7)342/820 (41.7)<0.001
 Cardiovascular disease†124/296 (41.9)217/1093 (19.8)<0.001
 High blood pressure†208/296 (70.3)565/1096 (51.5)<0.001
 Diabetes mellitus†90/295 (30.5)260/1090 (23.8)0.038
 Tobacco smoker/ex-smoker†111/260 (42.7)236/950 (23.8)<0.001
 Obesity†42/292 (14.4)169/1085 (15.6)0.169
 COPD†67/293 (22.9)120/1092 (11.0)<0.001
 Asthma†17/296 (5.7)95/1093 (8.7)0.166
 OSAS†20/156 (12.8)53/687 (7.7)0.041
 Thromboembolic disease†11/161 (6.8)26/681 (3.8)0.093
 Neurological disease†59/293 (20.1)101/1091 (9.3)<0.001
 Chronic kidney disease†40/295 (13.6)58/1092 (5.3)<0.001
 Liver cirrhosis†8/292 (2.7)17/1093 (1.5)0.352
 Haematological/oncological cancer†48/293 (16.4)50/1092 (4.6)<0.001
 HIV†0/295 (0.0)8/1091 (0.7)0.327
Clinical and laboratory presentation
 Heart rate (beats per minute)*88 (78–102) (N=242)88 (78–100) (N=881)0.856
 Respiratory rate (breaths per minute)*21.5 (16–28) (N=116)18 (16–20.5) (N=397)<0.001
 Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)*130 (111–147) (N=217)130 (117–143) (N=683)0.877
 SpO2 (%)*89 (82–93) (N=239)95 (92–97) (N=945)0.033
 SpO2 <90%†121/203 (59.6)152/945 (16.1)<0.001
 SpO2 after oxygen administration (%)*94 (90.5–97) (N=112)96 (94–98) (N=203)0.003
 SpO2 <90% after oxygen administration†18/112 (16.1)7/203 (0.1)<0.001
 Haemoglobin (g/L)*12.70 (11.00–14.50) (N=292)13.70 (12.60–14.70) (N=1054)<0.001
 Neutrophils (cells count/µL)*6100 (4200–8550) (N=292)4800 (3500–6800) (N=1057)<0.001
 Lymphocytes (cells count/µL)*800 (500–1100) (N=292)1000 (800–1300) (N=1057)<0.001
 Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio*7.17 (4.3–12.9) (N=292)4.67 (3.1–7.4) (N=1057)<0.001
 Platelets (×109/L)*190 (142.5–263.5) (N=292)209 (162–273) (N=1057)0.040
 INR*1.1 (1.0–1.3) (N=283)1.1 (1.0–1.2) (N=1026)<0.001
 D-dimer (mg/L)*1060 (570–2560) (N=167)750 (450–1330) (N=685)<0.001
 LDH (U/L)*345 (249–479) (N=235)259 (210–331) (N=887)<0.001
 ALT (U/L)*31 (23–47) (N=287)36 (25–55) (N=1050)<0.001
 AST (U/L)*47 (30–67) (N=284)38 (28–55) (N=1035)<0.001
 Creatinine (mg/dL)*1.2 (0.9–1.7) (N=285)0.9 (0.7–1.2) (N=1032)<0.001
 C reactive protein (mg/L)*105.9 (36.2–182.4) (N=291)53.8 (18.3–111.4)<0.001
Diagnosis imaging
 Bilateral pulmonary infiltrates†218/259 (84.2)762/960 (79.4)0.084
 Interstitial pulmonary infiltrates†182/296 (61.5)689/1097 (62.8)0.677
 Alveolar pulmonary infiltrates†153/296 (51.7)458/1097 (41.7)0.002
Respiratory supplementation
 Oxygen therapy†285/292 (97.6)458/1075 (76.5)0.001
 Non-invasive ventilation†57/289 (19.7)64/1072 (6.0)<0.001
 Invasive ventilation†46/292 (15.7)15/1075 (1.4)<0.001
  • *Continuous variable (median, IQR, N)

  • †Categorical variable (n/N, %)

  • ALT, alanine aminotransferase; AST, aspartate transaminase; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; INR, international normalised ratio; LDH, lactate dehydrogenase; OSAS, obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome; SpO2, partial oxygen saturation.