Table 4

Crude and adjusted ORs (with CIs) of GDM in relation to other predictor variables

VariableUnadjustedAdjusted
OR (95% CI)P valueOR (95% CI)P value
Age
 15–20 years11
 21–25 years0.93 (0.63 to 1.37)0.71.00 (0.54 to 1.84)0.99
 26–30 years*1.53 (1.02 to 2.30)0.041.70 (1.14 to 2.52)0.01
 >30 years2.06 (1.10 to 3.87)0.022.33 (0.78 to 6.95)0.13
Education
 Illiterate11
 Primary school1.28 (0.64 to 2.57)0.491.28 (0.52 to 3.16)0.58
 10th pass*1.61 (0.78 to 3.32)0.21.58 (1.05 to 2.37)0.03
 12th pass1.62 (0.75 to 3.49)0.221.41 (0.94 to 2.11)0.1
 Graduate and above2 (0.84 to 4.82)0.121.47 (0.62 to 3.48)0.38
Religion
 Hindu11
 Muslim*1.27 (0.94 to 1.72)0.121.52 (1.05 to 2.21)0.03
 Christian0.5 (0.06 to 3.95)0.520.70 (0.14 to 3.45)0.66
Economic status
 Below poverty line (BPL)11
 Above poverty line (APL)*1.56 (1.13 to 2.17)0.011.38 (1.00 to 1.91)0.05
Body mass index
 Normal11
 Underweight1.24 (0.85 to 1.82)0.271.35 (0.93 to 1.96)0.11
 Overweight/ obese1.64 (1.07 to 2.51)0.021.38 (0.90 to 2.10)0.13
Gravida
 Multigravida11
 Primigravida0.95 (0.70 to 1.28)0.721.27 (0.84 to 1.92)0.25
Haemoglobin status
 Anaemic11
 Non-anaemic1.52 (1.05 to 2.20)0.031.46 (0.94 to 2.26)0.09
Diabetes in family
 No11
 Yes*2.53 (1.52 to 4.22)01.82 (1.08 to 3.06)0.02
Miscarriage history
 No11
 Yes1.4 (0.82 to 2.37)0.221.53 (0.93 to 2.52)0.09
Smoking status
 Non-smokers11
 Current smokers*1.94 (0.85 to 4.45)0.131.61 (1.10 to 2.35)0.01
  • Estimates were calculated using logistic regression with a robust cluster estimator of the variance in stata V.15.1. The clustered SE estimated with clustering at the zone level.

  • *Significant variable in multivariate logistic regression.

  • GDM, gestational diabetes mellitus.