Table 1

Rapid appraisal design

Data sourceMethod of data collectionSampleMethod of data analysis
Policy reviewPolicies were selected from,, NHSE and PHE databases.35 policies published between 1 December 2019 and 20 April 2020.Data were extracted into Excel by one researcher and cross-checked by a second researcher who created a conceptual framework to categorise the policies.
Media analysisReview of newspaper articles obtained from LexisNexis.101 newspaper articles published between 1 December 2019 and 20 April 2020.Data extracted using REDCap and analysed for content using framework analysis (coding carried out by two researchers).
Data were selected using the software ‘Meltwater’ and sorted into pre-established categories.146 000 social media posts were collected from the period between 1 December 2019 and 30 April 2020.Two researchers analysed content using inclusion and exclusion framework, and coded the selected posts independently.
Front-line staff interviewsIn-depth, semistructured telephone interviews with a purposive sample of staff.30 staff members working in emergency departments and intensive care units in three hospitals:RAP sheets were used to synthesise findings on an ongoing basis. Selected transcripts were generated and analysed using framework analysis.
Male: 13
Female: 17
Nurses: 3
Doctors: 25
Allied health professionals: 2
Senior staff: 18
Junior staff: 12
  • NHSE, National Health Service England; PHE, Public Health England; RAP, rapid assessment procedures; REDCap, Research Electronic Data Capture.