Table 3

The grade quality assessment for metoprolol versus carvedilol

Metoprolol compared with carvedilol for postoperative atrial fibrillation prophylaxis
Patient or population: cardiac surgery
Intervention: metoprolol
Comparison: carvedilol
OutcomesAnticipated absolute effects (95% CI)*Relative effect
(95% CI)
No of participants
(studies)
Certainty of the evidence
(GRADE)
Comments
Risk with carvedilolRisk with metoprolol
Occurrence of postoperative atrial fibrillationStudy populationRR 1.61
(1.22 to 2.13)
(p <0.001)
587
(4 RCTs)
⊕⊕⊕⊕
HIGH
Assumed risk calculated from the mean risk across the control groups
207 per 1000334 per 1000
(253 to 442)
  • GRADE Working Group grades of evidence.

  • High certainty: We are very confident that the true effect lies close to that of the estimate of the effect.

  • Moderate certainty: We are moderately confident in the effect estimate: The true effect is likely to be close to the estimate of the effect, but there is a possibility that it is substantially different.

  • Low certainty: Our confidence in the effect estimate is limited: The true effect may be substantially different from the estimate of the effect.

  • Very low certainty: We have very little confidence in the effect estimate: The true effect is likely to be substantially different from the estimate of effect.

  • *The risk in the intervention group (and its 95% CI) is based on the assumed risk in the comparison group and the relative effect of the intervention (and its 95% CI).

  • GRADE, grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation; RCTs, randomised controlled trials; RR, risk ratio.