Table 1

Inclusion and exclusion criteria

Inclusion criteriaExclusion criteria
Women and men with symptomatic paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (EHRA ≥2)Participation in regular aerobic or resistance exercise training in the last 6 months (>60 min/week) or former high-performance athletes
Age of 60–80 yearsLeft ventricular ejection fraction <40% during sinus rhythm
BMI ≤35 kg/m2Significant valve disease
Implanted cardiac pacemaker, ICD or resynchronisation therapy
Coronary artery disease with insufficient revascularisation or unstable angina pectoris
Uncontrolled limiting comorbidities (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperthyroidism, etc)
Prior pulmonary vein ablation
Any contraindication to strenuous exercise or testing
  • BMI, body mass index; EHRA, European heart rhythm association; ICD, implantable cardioverter defibrillator.