Table 2

Univariate analyses of factors associated with prevalence of hyperkalaemia, hypokalaemia and level of serum potassium*

VariablesCategorynHyperkalaemiaHypokalaemiaSerum potassium, mEq/L
Guidelines definitionStudy definitionGuidelines definitionStudy definition
%P value%P value%P value%P valueMean (SD)P value
All12662.74.31.84.04.4 (0.5)
Age<654072.70.985.40.201.00.133.00.214.4 (0.5)0.35
≥658592.73.82.24.44.4 (0.5)
SexMale10483.00.194.80.101.80.983.90.884.5 (0.5)0.06
Female2181.42.31.84.14.4 (0.5)
Study regionChangzhi4723.00.425.30.380.60.0030.9<0.0014.5 (0.5)<0.001
Yangcheng2853.24.64.210.24.3 (0.6)
Xi’an2991.32.72.03.74.4 (0.5)
Hohhot2103.34.31.02.94.4 (0.5)
Unhealthy conditions†No3081.00.032.30.040.60.082.30.084.4 (0.4)0.08
Yes9583.25.02.24.54.5 (0.5)
HypertensionNo4511.30.032.40.011.60.603.60.594.4 (0.5)0.26
Yes8153.45.42.04.24.4 (0.5)
StrokeNo9282.50.454.30.921.90.594.10.664.4 (0.5)0.24
Yes3383.34.41.53.64.5 (0.5)
DiabetesNo11172.30.053.90.051.60.183.90.624.4 (0.5)0.76
Yes1495.47.43.44.74.4 (0.5)
Coronary heart diseaseNo11382.40.074.00.121.50.023.80.354.4 (0.5)0.22
Yes1285.57.04.75.54.5 (0.6)
Antihypertension medicationsNo7892.80.774.10.521.40.153.30.124.5 (0.5)0.27
Yes4772.54.82.55.04.4 (0.5)
Potassium-sparing medications‡§No10872.50.134.30.721.60.713.80.804.4 (0.5)0.32
Yes1195.05.01.74.24.5 (0.5)
Kaliuretic diuretics‡No10452.60.434.40.981.50.733.50.214.5 (0.5)0.08
Yes1613.74.41.95.64.4 (0.5)
Other medications‡¶No9462.80.963.80.061.50.583.70.694.4 (0.5)0.40
Yes2602.76.51.94.24.5 (0.5)
Other unhealthy conditions**No11592.70.764.40.751.70.443.90.614.4 (0.5)0.36
Yes1072.83.72.84.74.5 (0.5)
eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m2††≥907072.60.184.50.751.80.684.20.154.4 (0.5)<0.001
60–895042.23.62.04.04.5 (0.5)
<60559.19.1004.7 (0.6)
  • *Guidelines definition: hyperkalaemia is defined as serum potassium >5.5 mEq/L and hypokalaemia is defined as serum potassium <3.5 mEq/L. Study definition: hyperkalaemia is defined as serum potassium >97.5th percentile and hypokalaemia is defined as serum potassium <2.5th percentile of the distribution among healthy participants.

  • †Unhealthy conditions include hypertension, diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or being bedridden.

  • ‡Number of participants with missing data60.

  • §Include ACEI/ARB, β-blocker and potassium-sparing diuretics.

  • ¶Include calcium channel blocker, α-blocker and so on.

  • **Other unhealthy conditions include chronic kidney disease, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or being bedridden.

  • ††P value for trend.

  • ACEI, ACE inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate.