Table 1

Baseline characteristics of the study population comparing patients with non-dialysis CKD and ESKD

Overall populationPatients with CKDPatients with ESKDP value*
Patients (n)223114109
Age (years)†69.6 (62.8–74.3)71.0 (65.9–74.6)68.0 (59.0–74.0)0.055
Gender (M/F)61.4%/38.6%61.4%/38.6%61.5%/38.5%0.992
Indigenous population5.0%2.6%7.6%0.095
Education (years)
 <1253.1%53.5%52.8%0.999
 12–138.1%7.9%8.3%
 13–1512.2%12.3%12.0%
 ≥1626.6%26.3%26.9%
Carer status (carer available)26.0%7.0%45.9%<0.001
Gross annual income
 <$A25 00057.9%44.7%71.6%0.001
 $A25 000–$A50 00029.2%40.3%17.4%
 $A50 000–$A75 0007.2%7.9%6.4%
 >$A75 0005.8%7.0%4.6%
Smoking status
 Current smoker9.4%7.0%11.9%0.095
 Former smoker56.1%61.4%50.5%
 Non-smoker34.5%31.6%37.6%
Cause of renal disease
 Diabetic nephropathy33.9%30.4%37.6%0.067
 Hypertension/vascular disease20.8%25.0%16.5%
 Polycystic kidney disease4.5%2.7%6.4%
 Glomerulonephritis15.4%11.6%19.3%
 Others/unknown aetiology25.3%30.3%20.2%
Comorbidity
 Diabetes42.8%38.9%46.8%0.237
 Hypertension90.5%88.5%92.6%0.299
 Ischaemic heart disease38.0%23.9%52.8%<0.001
 Cerebrovascular disease14.9%11.5%18.5%0.144
 Peripheral vascular disease21.7%8.9%35.2%<0.001
 Lung disease27.6%24.8%30.6%0.337
  • p values with a significance level <0.05 are shown in bold format.

  • *P value for difference estimated by Wilcoxon rank-sum test for continuous variables and by χ2 test for proportions.

  • †Median and IQR.

  • CKD, chronic kidney disease; ESKD, end-stage kidney disease; F, female; M, male.