Table 3

Comparison of mean HLQ scores between patients with CKD and ESKD

Domain and descriptionCKD populationESKD PopulationP value*Cohen’s d†
Mean95% CIMean95% CI
HLQ1
Feel understood and supported by healthcare providers
3.273.18 to 3.353.323.23 to 3.420.2510.12
HLQ2
Have sufficient information to manage my health
2.982.90 to 3.063.103.00 to 3.200.0610.26
HLQ3
Actively managing health
2.962.88 to 3.032.912.81 to 3.010.622−0.10
HLQ4
Have social support for health
3.123.05 to 3.203.223.10 to 3.240.2050.19
HLQ5
Appraise health information
2.722.62 to 2.802.772.65 to 2.880.9160.09
HLQ6
Able to engage with healthcare providers
4.184.10 to 4.264.134.02 to 4.250.964−0.09
HLQ7
Navigating healthcare system
4.083.99 to 4.174.023.90 to 4.130.6130.12
HLQ8
Ability to find good health information
3.913.80 to 4.033.853.71 to 3.990.687−0.09
HLQ9
Understand health information well enough to know what to do
4.144.04 to 4.234.043.91 to 4.160.488−0.17
  • p values with a significance level <0.05 are shown in bold format

  • *P value for difference estimated by Wilcoxon rank-sum test for continuous variables and by χ2 test for proportions.

  • †Cohen’s d effect size for difference between scores of patients with ESKD and CKD.

  • CKD, chronic kidney disease; ESKD, end-stage kidney disease; HLQ, Health Literacy Questionnaire.