Table 2

Baseline cognitive and psychological measures of the study population comparing patients with non-dialysis CKD and ESKD

Overall population
Median (IQR)/%
Patients with CKD
Median (IQR)/%
Patients with ESKD
Median (IQR)/%
P value*
Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS) score†94 (890–97)95 (91–97)93 (86–96)0.001
Cognitive impairment (patients with 3MS score <85%)17.6%12.3%23.2%0.033
Trail-making test A (TMT-A) (s)38 (29–52.5)35 (28–45)43.5 (33–68)<0.001
Trail-making test B (TMT-B) (s)100 (73–143)82 (65–117)120 (83–201)<0.001
Difference between TMT-A and TMT-B (s)62 (40–94)46 (33–76)72 (49–129)<0.001
Stroop interference score−2.5 (−7.2 to 2.8)−1.6 (−6.1 to 3.9)−3.6 (−8.2 to 1.4)0.055
Beck Depression Inventory 2 (BDI-2) score9 (4–14)6.5 (3–11)10 (5–17)<0.001
Depression (based on BDI-2 score of 14 or above)26.9%14.9%39.5%<0.001
  • p values with a significance level <0.05 are shown in bold format.

  • *P value for difference estimated by Wilcoxon rank-sum test for continuous variables and χ2 test for difference in proportions.

  • †Median and IQR.

  • CKD, chronic kidney disease; ESKD, end-stage kidney disease.