Table 3

Isolation, COVID-19 infection and mental health

n (col %)Depressive symptoms (PHQ-2)Anxiety symptoms (GAD-2)Burn-out
M (SD)B (95% CI)M (SD)B (95% CI)M (SD)B (95% CI)
Isolation
Isolated yourself while caring for COVID-19 patients
 No1191 (58.61)1.60 (1.54)REF2.17 (2.27REF2.82 (1.78)REF
 Yes841 (41.39)2.01 (1.66)0.41 (0.26 to 0.55)2.48 (1.88)0.30 (0.14 to 0.46)3.09 (1.87)0.27 (0.10 to 0.43)
Sent cohabitants away from home
 No1825 (92.73)1.77 (1.60)REF2.28 (1.80)REF2.91 (1.83)REF
 Yes143 (7.27)1.92 (1.56)0.15 (−0.12 to 0.43)2.54 (1.80)0.26 (−0.06 to 0.57)3.24 (1.80)0.32 (0.01 to 0.64)
Moved into a different residence temporarily
 No1730 (87.91)1.76 (1.59)REF2.26 (1.79)REF2.92 (1.81)REF
 Yes238 (12.09%)1.93 (1.67)0.17 (−0.05 to 0.39)2.60 (1.89)0.34 (0.09 to 0.59)3.09 (1.91)0.18 (−0.08 to 0.43)
Took all necessary precautions at home
 No847 (43.04)1.78 (1.65)REF2.18 (1.79)REF2.92 (1.86)REF
 Yes1121 (56.96)1.78 (1.56)−0.00 (−0.15 to 0.14)2.39 (1.81)0.21 (0.05 to 0.37)2.95 (1.80)0.02 (−0.14 to 0.19)
Live alone so I did not need to self-isolate
 No1674 (85.06)1.73 (1.55)REF2.33 (1.79)REF2.93 (1.83)REF
 Yes294 (14.94)2.08 (1.83)0.35 (0.15 to 0.55)2.11 (1.87)−0.22 (−0.45 to 0.01)3.00 (1.83)0.08 (−0.15 to 0.31)
Did not take any precautions at home
 No1588 (80.69)1.86 (1.63)REF2.37 (1.82)REF2.98 (1.82)REF
 Yes380 (19.31)1.43 (1.43)−0.43 (−0.61 to −0.25)2.01 (1.71)−0.36 (−0.57 to -0.16)2.74 (1.85)−0.24 (−0.45 to −0.04)
COVID-19 infection
Probable/confirmed COVID-19 infection
 No1442 (70.69)1.68 (1.58)REF2.20 (1.77)REF2.77 (1.77)REF
 Yes598 (29.31)1.99 (1.65)0.31 (0.16 to 0.47)2.54 (1.87)0.34 (0.17 to 0.52)3.31 (1.90)0.54 (0.36 to 0.71)
If you tested positive or had symptoms of COVID-19, did any of your family members
 No460 (64.25)1.92 (1.69)REF2.29 (1.82)REF3.08 (1.90)REF
 Yes74 (10.34)2.01 (1.69)0.10 (−0.31 to 0.51)2.59 (2.05)0.30 (−0.15 to 0.75)3.32 (1.92)0.24 (−0.23 to 0.70)
 Unsure182 (25.42)2.05 (1.52)0.13 (−0.15 to 0.42)2.71 (1.73)0.42 (0.10 to 0.74)3.26 (1.79)0.19 (−0.14 to 0.52)
Did your family member die from this disease?
 No73 (98.65)2.04 (1.68)REF2.61 (2.06)REF3.28 (1.91)REF
 Yes1 (1.35)0.00 (0.00)Not estimable1.00 (0.00)Not estimable6.00 (0.00)Not estimable
Did anyone in your family die from COVID-19?
 No1929 (94.74)1.77 (1.60)REF2.30 (1.80)REF2.92 (1.82)REF
 Yes107 (5.26)1.90 (1.78)0.14 (−0.18 to 0.46)2.31 (1.97)0.02 (−0.34 to 0.37)3.03 (1.92)0.11 (−0.25 to 0.47)
Did you have a coworker that contracted COVID-19?
 No349 (17.18)1.44 (1.54)REF1.98 (1.74)REF2.45 (1.76)REF
 Yes1456 (71.65)1.81 (1.60)0.37 (0.18 to 0.56)2.32 (1.80)0.34 (0.13 to 0.56)2.97 (1.81)0.52 (0.31 to 0.74)
 Unsure227 (11.17)2.00 (1.67)0.56 (0.29 to 0.83)2.63 (1.88)0.66 (0.36 to 0.96)3.33 (1.87)0.88 (0.57 to 1.18)
Do you know anyone in your department who is/was admitted to the hospital because of COVID-19?
 No1174 (57.92)1.65 (1.56)REF2.28 (1.81)REF2.85 (1.81)REF
 Yes853 (42.08)1.94 (1.66)0.29 (0.15 to 0.43)2.33 (1.81)0.05 (−0.11 to 0.21)3.02 (1.83)0.17 (0.01 to 0.33)
Do you know anyone in your department who died because of COVID-19?
 No1724 (84.93)1.73 (1.57)REF2.28 (1.80)REF2.90 (1.81)REF
 Yes226 (11.13)1.93 (1.71)0.20 (−0.02 to 0.42)2.33 (1.80)0.04 (−0.21 to 0.30)3.01 (1.86)0.11 (−0.15 to 0.36)
 Unsure80 (3.94)2.29 (1.95)0.57 (0.20 to 0.93)2.58 (1.98)0.30 (−0.11 to 0.71)3.15 (1.96)0.25 (−0.16 to 0.67)
Approximately how many COVID-19 patients did you treat in the past 6 months?
 1–10 patients537 (28.19)1.60 (1.58)REF2.28 (1.82)REF2.79 (1.80)REF
 11–50 patients711 (37.32)1.84 (1.60)0.24 (0.06 to 0.42)2.39 (1.83)0.11 (−0.09 to 0.32)2.96 (1.83)0.17 (−0.04 to 0.37)
 51–100 patients331 (17.38)1.79 (1.56)0.19 (−0.03 to 0.41)2.16 (1.76)−0.11 (−0.36 to 0.14)3.01 (1.78)0.22 (−0.03 to 0.47)
 >100 patients326 (17.11)1.87 (1.64)0.27 (0.05 to 0.50)2.24 (1.71)−0.04 (−0.28 to 0.21)2.99 (1.83)0.20 (−0.05 to 0.45)
What percentage of your working hours put you in close contact with COVID-19 patients
 Less than 25%702 (36.49)1.59 (1.50)REF2.19 (1.71)REF2.68 (1.70)REF
 25%–50% of the time438 (22.77)1.71 (1.53)0.12 (−0.07 to 0.31)2.25 (1.81)0.06 (-0.16 to 0.27)2.94 (1.85)0.26 (0.04 to 0.48)
 Over 50% of the time784 (40.75)1.96 (1.70)0.37 (0.21 to 0.54)2.40 (1.86)0.20 (0.02 to 0.39)3.15 (1.86)0.46 (0.28 to 0.65)
  • GAD-2, Generalised Anxiety Disorder-2; PHQ-2, Patient Health Questionnaire-2.