Table 1

Published studies of adverse pregnancy outcomes comparing physicians versus non-physicians (1989–2019)

StudyRegionExposedComparatorResponse
rate (%)
Relative direction of the outcome (exposed vs comparator)
SAHypertensive
disorders
SGAPreterm
labour
Preterm
birth
Stillbirth
Cross-sectional surveys
 Klebanoff, 199028USAWomen residents
(n=989)
Partners of male residents
(n=1239)
86
 Osborn, 199029USAWomen residents
(n=92)
Partners of male residents
(n=144)
57NR
 Pinhas-Hamiel, 199930IsraelWomen physicians
(n=207)
General population (NR)52NRNR
 Gabbe, 200331USAWomen residents
(n=302)
Partners of male residents
(n=274)
96NRNR
 Behbehani, 201532CanadaWomen residents
(n=238)
General population
(n=3767)
NRNRNR
Cohort studies
 Miller, 198933USAWomen physicians (n=67)General population
(n=201)
NANRNRNRNR
 Heinonen, 200234FinlandWomen physicians
(n=331)
General population
(n=21 997)
NANRNR
 Quansah, 200935FinlandWomen physicians
(n=7642)
Upper white collar workers
(n=124 606)
NANRNRNR
  • ↔ no significant difference; ↑ increased risk; ↓ decreased risk.

  • NA, not applicable; NR, not reported; SA, spontaneous abortion; SGA, small for gestational age birth weight.