Table 2

Economic parameters identified by the systematic review

Resource groupEconomic parameter
Secondary careHospital admissions, duration of stay in hospital, use of hospital services/beds, supplies and room charges, outpatient visits/consultations, readmissions, medical claims
Primary careGeneral practice visits, contacts with nurse, physiotherapy sessions, specialist consultations, home visits, telephone consultations, unscheduled consultations, physiotherapy sessions, acupuncture sessions, medical claims
Medication useDrugs number/dose/frequency/cost, number of items prescribed/number of prescriptions, net ingredient cost, combination therapies and concomitant medication, treatment cost of drug-related adverse events, pharmacy costs, cost savings from medication averted, pharmacy claims, over-the-counter medication, rescue/acute medication
Emergency careEmergency department visits and admissions, intensive care stay, ambulance calls and attendances, out-of-hours services
WorkTime off work due to illness, number of sickness episodes, productivity loss due to absenteeism and presenteeism, lost income, workers’ compensations and disability payments, inability to perform usual activities, unpaid work, premature retirement
DiagnosticsDiagnostic procedures, diagnostic equipment, laboratory tests
Health utilityQALY, YLD, HR-QoL
Healthcare deliveryTravel time/cost, time spent by patient attending hospital/clinic, time spent by accompanying person attending hospital/clinic, waiting time/cost, cost of care delivery programme, willingness to pay for services
SchoolDays off school, number of sickness episodes, school fees lost, school clinic consultations, cost of school nurse
Informal careTime off work for caregivers, parents’/caregivers’ work productivity losses, loss of work/income for parents/caregivers, early retirement of caregivers, housekeeping costs,household modifications (eg, air filters, dehumidifiers)
DevicesType of inhaler device/cost, number of items prescribed, cost of respiratory therapy (nebuliser)
  • HR-QoL, health-related quality of life; QALY, quality adjusted life years; YLD, years lived with disability.