Table 2

Linear mixed models with estimated marginal means of each item of effort scale and of reward scale in 2010, 2016 and 2019

General practitioners
Estimated Marginal Means (95% C)
Doctors in hospital
Estimated Marginal Means (95% C)
Specialists in private practice
Estimated marginal means (95% C)
Doctors in academia
Estimated Marginal Means (95% C)
201020162019201020162019201020162019201020162019
Effort scale
ERI 1: I Have Constant Time Pressure Due to a Heavy Workload3.29 (A, C)
(3.15 to 3.43)
3.58 (A)
(3.45 to 3.71)
3.76 (C)
(3.62 to 3.89)
3.34
(3.25 to 3.43)
3.27■
(3.19 to 3.34)
3.33▲
3.26 to 3.41)
2.99*
(2.72 to 3.25)
3.04■
(2.77 to 3.31)
3.12
(2.84 to 3.39)
2.91*
(2.66 to 3.17)
2.97■
(2.71 to 3.23)
2.80▲
(2.56 to 3.04)
ERI 2: I have a lot of responsibility in my job3.04 (A, C)
(2.92 to 3.17)
3.32 (A)
(3.21 to 3.43)
3.47 (C)
(3.35 to 3.58)
3.03
(2.96 to 3.11)
3.09■
(3.03 to 3.16)
3.08▲
(3.02 to 3.15)
2.97
(2.75 to 3.20)
3.01■
(2.78 to 3.25)
2.90▲
(2.66 to 3.14)
2.60*
(2.37 to 2.82)
2.57■
(2.34 to 2.80)
2.61▲
(2.40 to 2.82)
ERI 3: i have many interruptions and disturbances in my job2.83
(2.69 to 2.98)
2.87
(2.74 to 3.01)
3.06
(2.92 to 3.20)
3.34*
(3.24 to 3.43)
3.23■
(3.15 to 3.31)
3.29
(3.21 to 3.36)
2.19*
(1.92 to 2.47)
2.06■
(1.78 to 2.34)
1.95▲
(1.67 to 2.24)
2.54
(2.28 to 2.80)
2.41■
(2.14 to 2.68)
2.50▲
(2.25 to 2.75)
ERI 4: Over the past few years, my job has become more and more demanding2.64 (A, C)
(2.48 to 2.80)
3.20 (A, B)
(3.05 to 3.35)
3.72 (B, C)
(3.56 to 3.87)
2.82
(2.72 to 2.92)
2.84■
(2.75 to 2.92)
2.88▲
(2.79 to 2.96)
2.17*
(1.86 to 2.47)
2.34■
(2.03 to 2.66)
2.42▲
(2.11 to 2.74)
2.5
(2.20 to 2.80)
2.08■
(1.77 to 2.38)
2.19▲
(1.90 to 2.47)
Reward scale
ERI 5: The prospects of my further job development are poor4.14 (C)
(4.00 to 4.28)
4.10
(3.97 to 4.22)
3.81 (C)
(3.68 to 3.94)
4.28
(4.19 to 4.37)
4.12
(4.05 to 4.20)
4.13▲
(4.06 to 4.20)
4.32
(4.06 to 4.57)
4.38
(4.12 to 4.65)
4.18▲
(3.91 to 4.45)
4.41
(4.16 to 4.66)
4.26
(4.00 to 4.51)
4.31▲
(4.07 to 4.54)
ERI 6: I have experienced or i expect to experience an undesirable change in my work situation3.92 (A, C)
(3.74 to 4.09)
3.54 (A, B)
(3.38 to 3.70)
3.02 (B, C)
(2.86 to 3.19)
3.50*
(3.38 to 3.61)
3.38
(3.29 to 3.48)
3.48▲
(3.38 to 3.57)
4.12
(3.80 to 4.47)
4.19■
(3.84 to 4.54)
4.23▲
(3.88 to 4.58)
3.75
(3.42 to 4.07)
3.87
(3.53 to 4.20)
3.93▲
(3.62 to 4.24)
ERI 7: My job security is poor4.65 (C)
(4.50 to 4.80)
4.47 (B)
(4.33 to 4.61)
4.07 (B, C)
(3.92 to 4.21)
4.29*
(4.19 to 4.39)
4.23■
(4.15 to 4.32)
4.40▲
(4.32 to 4.49)
4.26
(3.98 to 4.55)
4.37
(4.07 to 4.67)
4.31
(4.01 to 4.61)
4.27*
(3.99 to 4.55)
4.2
(3.91 to 4.48)
4.23
(3.96 to 4.50)
ERI 8: Considering all my efforts and achievements, i receive the respect and prestige i deserve for my work4.54 (A, C)
(4.41 to 4.67)
4.22 (A)
(4.10 to 4.35)
3.99 (C)
(3.86 to 4.12)
4.37*
(4.29 to 4.46)
4.26
(4.19 to 4.33)
4.27▲
(4.20 to 4.34)
4.67
(4.42 to 4.92)
4.38
(4.12 to 4.64)
4.55▲
(4.29 to 4.81)
4.51
(4.27 to 4.75)
4.42
(4.17 to 4.67)
4.47▲
(4.24 to 4.70)
ERI 9: Considering all my efforts and achievements, my income is adequate4.17 (C)
(4.02 to 4.31)
3.91 (B)
(3.77 to 4.05)
3.51 (B, C)
(3.37 to 3.66)
4.04
(3.94 to 4.13)
3.92
(3.83 to 4.00)
3.91▲
(3.83 to 3.99)
4.31
(4.03 to 4.59)
4.32■
(4.03 to 4.61)
4.27▲
(3.97 to 4.56)
3.52*
(3.25 to 3.79)
3.79
(3.51 to 4.07)
3.73
(3.47 to 3.99)
  • High values indicate high effort/reward, ranged from 1 to 5.

  • Statistically significant changes in estimated marginal means of each item within job position in bold writing: (A) from 2010 to 2016; (B) from 2016 to 2019 and (C) from 2010 to 2019.

  • Statistically significant differences in estimated marginal means of each item across job positions with GPs as reference are marked with (*) in 2010, with (■) in 2016 and with (▲) in 2019.

  • ERI, Effort–Reward Imbalance; GPs, general practitioners .