Table 2

Linear mixed models with estimated marginal means of each item of effort scale and of reward scale in 2010, 2016 and 2019

 General practitionersEstimated Marginal Means (95% C) Doctors in hospitalEstimated Marginal Means (95% C) Specialists in private practiceEstimated marginal means (95% C) Doctors in academiaEstimated Marginal Means (95% C) 2010 2016 2019 2010 2016 2019 2010 2016 2019 2010 2016 2019 Effort scale ERI 1: I Have Constant Time Pressure Due to a Heavy Workload 3.29 (A, C) (3.15 to 3.43) 3.58 (A)(3.45 to 3.71) 3.76 (C)(3.62 to 3.89) 3.34(3.25 to 3.43) 3.27■(3.19 to 3.34) 3.33▲3.26 to 3.41) 2.99*(2.72 to 3.25) 3.04■(2.77 to 3.31) 3.12(2.84 to 3.39) 2.91*(2.66 to 3.17) 2.97■(2.71 to 3.23) 2.80▲(2.56 to 3.04) ERI 2: I have a lot of responsibility in my job 3.04 (A, C) (2.92 to 3.17) 3.32 (A) (3.21 to 3.43) 3.47 (C)(3.35 to 3.58) 3.03(2.96 to 3.11) 3.09■(3.03 to 3.16) 3.08▲(3.02 to 3.15) 2.97(2.75 to 3.20) 3.01■(2.78 to 3.25) 2.90▲(2.66 to 3.14) 2.60*(2.37 to 2.82) 2.57■(2.34 to 2.80) 2.61▲(2.40 to 2.82) ERI 3: i have many interruptions and disturbances in my job 2.83(2.69 to 2.98) 2.87(2.74 to 3.01) 3.06(2.92 to 3.20) 3.34*(3.24 to 3.43) 3.23■(3.15 to 3.31) 3.29(3.21 to 3.36) 2.19*(1.92 to 2.47) 2.06■(1.78 to 2.34) 1.95▲(1.67 to 2.24) 2.54(2.28 to 2.80) 2.41■(2.14 to 2.68) 2.50▲(2.25 to 2.75) ERI 4: Over the past few years, my job has become more and more demanding 2.64 (A, C)(2.48 to 2.80) 3.20 (A, B)(3.05 to 3.35) 3.72 (B, C)(3.56 to 3.87) 2.82(2.72 to 2.92) 2.84■(2.75 to 2.92) 2.88▲(2.79 to 2.96) 2.17*(1.86 to 2.47) 2.34■(2.03 to 2.66) 2.42▲(2.11 to 2.74) 2.5(2.20 to 2.80) 2.08■(1.77 to 2.38) 2.19▲(1.90 to 2.47) Reward scale ERI 5: The prospects of my further job development are poor 4.14 (C)(4.00 to 4.28) 4.10(3.97 to 4.22) 3.81 (C) (3.68 to 3.94) 4.28(4.19 to 4.37) 4.12(4.05 to 4.20) 4.13▲(4.06 to 4.20) 4.32(4.06 to 4.57) 4.38(4.12 to 4.65) 4.18▲(3.91 to 4.45) 4.41(4.16 to 4.66) 4.26(4.00 to 4.51) 4.31▲(4.07 to 4.54) ERI 6: I have experienced or i expect to experience an undesirable change in my work situation 3.92 (A, C) (3.74 to 4.09) 3.54 (A, B) (3.38 to 3.70) 3.02 (B, C) (2.86 to 3.19) 3.50*(3.38 to 3.61) 3.38(3.29 to 3.48) 3.48▲(3.38 to 3.57) 4.12(3.80 to 4.47) 4.19■(3.84 to 4.54) 4.23▲(3.88 to 4.58) 3.75(3.42 to 4.07) 3.87(3.53 to 4.20) 3.93▲(3.62 to 4.24) ERI 7: My job security is poor 4.65 (C) (4.50 to 4.80) 4.47 (B) (4.33 to 4.61) 4.07 (B, C) (3.92 to 4.21) 4.29*(4.19 to 4.39) 4.23■(4.15 to 4.32) 4.40▲(4.32 to 4.49) 4.26(3.98 to 4.55) 4.37(4.07 to 4.67) 4.31(4.01 to 4.61) 4.27*(3.99 to 4.55) 4.2(3.91 to 4.48) 4.23(3.96 to 4.50) ERI 8: Considering all my efforts and achievements, i receive the respect and prestige i deserve for my work 4.54 (A, C) (4.41 to 4.67) 4.22 (A) (4.10 to 4.35) 3.99 (C) (3.86 to 4.12) 4.37*(4.29 to 4.46) 4.26(4.19 to 4.33) 4.27▲(4.20 to 4.34) 4.67(4.42 to 4.92) 4.38(4.12 to 4.64) 4.55▲(4.29 to 4.81) 4.51(4.27 to 4.75) 4.42(4.17 to 4.67) 4.47▲(4.24 to 4.70) ERI 9: Considering all my efforts and achievements, my income is adequate 4.17 (C) (4.02 to 4.31) 3.91 (B) (3.77 to 4.05) 3.51 (B, C) (3.37 to 3.66) 4.04(3.94 to 4.13) 3.92(3.83 to 4.00) 3.91▲(3.83 to 3.99) 4.31(4.03 to 4.59) 4.32■(4.03 to 4.61) 4.27▲(3.97 to 4.56) 3.52*(3.25 to 3.79) 3.79(3.51 to 4.07) 3.73(3.47 to 3.99)
• High values indicate high effort/reward, ranged from 1 to 5.

• Statistically significant changes in estimated marginal means of each item within job position in bold writing: (A) from 2010 to 2016; (B) from 2016 to 2019 and (C) from 2010 to 2019.

• Statistically significant differences in estimated marginal means of each item across job positions with GPs as reference are marked with (*) in 2010, with (■) in 2016 and with (▲) in 2019.

• ERI, Effort–Reward Imbalance; GPs, general practitioners .