Table 1

Characteristics of study participants (n=42 319)

CharacteristicsTotalPerinatal deathP value*CharacteristicsTotalPerinatal deathP value*
Maternaln (%)n (%)Obstetricsn (%)n (%)
Age (years)<0.001Gestational diabetes0.89
15–193470 (8.2)99 (2.9)No42 288 (99.9)1560 (3.7)
20–3432 675 (77.2)1158 (3.5)Yes31 (0.1)1 (3.2)
35–394984 (11.8)235 (4.7)Diabetes0.002
40+1190 (2.8)69 (5.8)No42 240 (99.8)1553 (3.7)
Education level<0.001Yes79 (0.2)8 (10.1)
None567 (1.3)32 (5.6)Hypertension<0.001
Primary23 010 (54.4)1019 (4.4)No42 241 (99.8)1550 (3.7)
Secondary5275 (12.5)159 (3.0)Yes78 (0.2)11 (14.1)
Higher13 467 (31.8)351 (2.6)Bleeding<0.001
Occupation0.37No41 897 (99.0)1528 (3.6)
Unemployed9316 (22.0)365 (3.9)Yes422 (1.0)33 (7.8)
Employed30 061 (71.0)1085 (3.6)Anaemia0.004
Others2942 (7.0)111 (3.8)No41 661 (98.4)1523 (3.7)
Marital status0.89Yes658 (1.6)38 (5.8)
Single4954 (11.7)186 (3.8)Malaria0.79
Married37 300 (88.1)1372 (3.7)No36 746 (86.8)1352 (3.7)
Widowed/divorced65 (0.2)3 (4.6)Yes5573 (13.2)209 (3.8)
Area of residence<0.001Sepsis/infections0.43
Urban25 056 (59.2)725 (2.9)No41 588 (98.3)1538 (3.7)
Rural17 263 (40.8)836 (4.8)Yes731 (1.7)23 (3.1)
Alcohol consumption during pregnancy0.001Complications
No30 759 (72.7)1191 (3.9)Pre-eclampsia/ eclampsia<0.001
Yes11 560 (27.3)370 (3.2)No40 668 (96.1)1355 (3.3)
Smoking during pregnancy0.97Yes1651 (3.9)206 (12.5)
Yes53 (0.1)2 (3.8)Induction of labour<0.001
No42 266 (99.9)1559 (3.7)No32 732 (77.3)1105 (3.4)
No of ANC visits<0.001Yes9587 (22.7)456 (4.8)
≥428 742 (67.9)760 (2.6)PROM0.006
<413 577 (32.1)801 (5.9)No41 416 (97.9)1543 (3.7)
Referred for delivery<0.001Yes903 (2.1)18 (2.0)
No32 762 (77.4)819 (2.5)PPH<0.001
Yes9557 (22.6)742 (7.8)No42 091 (99.5)1516 (3.6)
Paternal characteristicsYes228 (0.5)45 (19.7)
Age (years)0.0013–4 degree tear0.49
<253938 (9.3)122 (3.1)No42 305 (99.9)1560 (3.7)
25–2910 593 (25.0)346 (3.3)Yes14 (0.1)1 (7.1)
30–3412 303 (29.1)457 (3.7)Abruption placenta<0.001
35+15 485 (36.6)636 (4.1)No42 193 (99.7)1490 (3.5)
Education level<0.001Yes126 (0.3)71 (56.3)
None281 (0.7)27 (9.6)Placenta previa0.04
Primary18 987 (44.9)868 (4.6)No42 245 (99.8)1555 (3.7)
Secondary4565 (10.8)154 (3.4)Yes74 (0.2)6 (8.1)
Higher18 486 (43.7)512 (2.8)Presentation<0.001
Occupation<0.001Cephalic41 833 (98.9)1459 (3.5)
Unemployed5710 (13.5)323 (5.7)Breach/ Transverse486 (1.1)102 (21.0)
Employed36 102 (85.3)1218 (3.4)Gestational age at birth<0.001
Others507 (1.2)20 (3.9)Term birth (≥37 weeks)37 764 (89.2)914 (2.4)
Preterm birth (<37 weeks)4555 (10.8)647 (14.2)
Birth weight<0.001
Normal birth weight37 991 (89.8)801 (2.1)
Low birth weight4328 (10.2)760 (17.6)
Child’s sex0.42
Female20 430 (48.3)738 (3.6)
Total42 3191561 (3.7%)Male21 889 (51.7)823 (3.8)
  • *P value based on the χ2 test.

  • ANC, antenatal care; PPH, postpartum haemorrhage; PROM, premature rupture of the membranes.