Table 2

Study participant inclusion and exclusion criteria

Inclusion criteriaExclusion criteria
Patients aged >40 weeks (corrected gestational age) and <12 monthsSevere prematurity (gestational age <32 weeks). Patients with gestational age less than 32 weeks will be excluded because they are considered at high risk for respiratory pathology following their severe prematurity.
Patient intubated and mechanically ventilated for at least 6 hours, but no more than 24 hours, with an expected requirement of invasive ventilatory support for at least 24 hours
Need for O2 supplementation to maintain SatO2>94% in the 4 weeks preceding hospitalisation in the PICU
Clinical picture strongly suggestive for acute bronchiolitis (fever of probable viral origin, fine crackles, prolonged expiration, lung hyperinflation on chest X-ray)
Invasive mechanical ventilation for more than 24 hours
Oxygenation index (OI) >30
Cyanotic congenital heart disease
Untreated pneumothorax
Neuromuscular diseases
Severe neurological abnormalities
Other severe congenital anomalies
Indication not to attempt resuscitation
Patient already recruited for other clinical studies
Moderate or severe paediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), defined by OI >8 or oxygen saturation index (OSI) >7.525 26
Written informed consent obtained from both parents
  • PICU, paediatric intensive care unit.