Table 1

Data sources for assessment of outcomes

VariableMeasurementDescription
Primary outcome
 DepressionCentre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale Revised3920-item scale, assessing depressive symptoms. Has been validated for use among adolescents in Vietnam.40
Secondary Outcomes
 Mental well-beingMental Health Continuum Short Form41 4214-item scale representing three dimensions of well-being: emotional, social and psychological well-being.
 Coping self-efficacyCoping Self-Efficacy Scale (CSF)43The CSF consists of 26 items measuring perceived self-efficacy for coping with challenges and threats.
 School connectednessSchool connectedness scale developed by The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health44This scale measures the bond adolescents’ feel toward school through the responses to five statements: ‘I feel close to people at this school’, ‘I feel like I am part of this school’, ‘I am happy to be at this school’, ‘The teachers at this school treat students fairly’ and ‘I feel safe in my school’.
 Anger managementBehavioral Anger Response Questionnaire (BARQ)45The 37-item BARQ measures six factors: direct anger-out, assertion, support seeking, diffusion, avoidance and rumination.
 Health risk behaviours14 questions selected from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey
questions46
Health behaviours are assessed including cigarette smoking, alcohol use, physical fighting, watching TV, playing video games and using a computer.